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Chapter 3

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  1. Chapter 3 Sections 1 & 2 – An Era of Exploration & Spain Builds an Empire

  2. 1st people in the Americas are actually the Vikings from Scandinavia. 1001 – Leif Ericson reached Newfoundland (Vinland) but did not stay long

  3. The Viking Voyages

  4. Newfoundland

  5. Late 1400s, Spain wants to get in on Asian spice trade • King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella agree to fund an expedition for the Italian Christopher Columbus

  6. 3 ships: Santa Maria, Nina & Pinta 90 sailors

  7. October 12, 1492 – lands in islands in Caribbean

  8. Given Title: ADMIRAL OF THE SEAS

  9. Makes 3 more voyages to New World • 1493 – sets up 1st Spanish colony – Hispaniola (Haiti/Dominican Republic)

  10. SIGNIFICANCE: LASTING CONTACT AMONG PEOPLES OF EUROPE, AFRICA & AMERICAS

  11. EFFECT ON NATIVES? • CLAIMED LANDS • FORCED LABOR • DIED OF HARSH CONDITIONS OR DISEASE

  12. Columbus’ voyages mark a turning point in history

  13. Effect for Europeans Place to settle, trade & grow rich

  14. COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE GLOBAL EXCHANGE OF GOODS & IDEAS (pg. 71)

  15. TODAY’S RESULT: ½ of the world’s food crops come from plants 1st grown in the Americas

  16. LATER EXPLORERS

  17. 1513 – Vasco Nunez de Balboa Explored Panama & claimed Pacific for Spain

  18. 1519 – 1522 Ferdinand Magellan 1st group to circumnavigate the world

  19. Found an ALL water WESTERN route to Asia EFFECT – found out true size of the Earth

  20. SPANISH CONQUISTADORS

  21. 1519 – Hernando Cortes Sailed for Mexico & conquered Aztecs in 1520 - Killed emperor Montezuma & captured Tenochtitlan – Aztec empire fell

  22. 1532 – Francisco Pizarro Captured Incan emperor 1535 – controlled much of empire

  23. Why are these conquistadors so successful?? • Superior military equipment • Natives frightened by mounted soldiers • Natives didn’t fight hard (gods?) • Diseases

  24. 1513 Juan Ponce de Leon Explored Florida in search of a fountain of youth

  25. 1533 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca Traveled by foot over 1,000 miles throughout the southwestern part of United States

  26. 1539-1542 Hernando de Soto Explored Florida & the Southeast 1st to reach Mississippi River

  27. 1540 – Francisco Coronado Explored southwest borderlands in search of “seven cities of gold” Reached Grand Canyon

  28. 3 types of settlements in New Spain • Pueblos – towns (Santa Fe, NM) • Presidios – forts (St. Augustine, FL) • Missions - religious settlements (El Paso, TX)

  29. 4 social classes in New Spain • Peninsulares – born in Spain • Creoles – born in Americas to Spanish parents • Mestizos – mixed Spanish & Indian • Indians

  30. Bartolome de Las Casas • Fought for reform for Natives • 1540s – royal government passed laws prohibiting enslavement of Natives but few enforced • de Las Casas suggested using Africans as slaves

  31. Why use African slaves? • Immune to disease • Used to hard labor

  32. RESULT? 1500s – 1800s 10 million enslaved Africans brought to Americas