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MAL POSITIONS / MAL PRESENTATIONS. Occiptio-posterior position 1 in 5 deliveries Face presentation 1 in 500 deliveries Brow presentation 1 in 1000 deliveries Breech presentation 1-2 in 50 deliveries Shoulder presentation 1 in 200 deliveries

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mal positions mal presentations
MAL POSITIONS / MAL PRESENTATIONS
  • Occiptio-posterior position 1 in 5 deliveries
  • Face presentation 1 in 500 deliveries
  • Brow presentation 1 in 1000 deliveries
  • Breech presentation 1-2 in 50 deliveries
  • Shoulder presentation 1 in 200 deliveries
  • Unstable lie 1 in 350 deliveries
slide2

Occipito – posterior position..

In a vertex presentation when the occiput is placed posteriorly over the sacrum / sacro – iliac joint, it is called an occipito – posterior position.

R.O.P. – Occiput on right sacro - iliac joint.

L.O.P. – Occiput on left sacro – iliac joint.

Direct occipito – posterior – occiput points towards sacrum.

slide4
Occipito – posterior is an abnormal position of the vertex rather than an abnormal presentation. (In most of cases (90%) anterior rotation of occiput occurs.) But as the posterior position may give rise to Dystocia (abnormal labour & delivery), it is associated with mal presentation.
slide5
Incidence – upto 13% of all vertex presentation.

R.O.P. is 3 times more common than L.O.P.

  • WHY ??

-Dextro-rotation of the uterus favoursoccipito-posterior than right occipito-anterior position

-The right oblique diameter is slightly longer than the left one

-The left oblique diameter is reduced by the presence of sigmoid colon

slide6
Causes :-

Not clear but factors abound –

  • CPD , Maternal kyphosis
  • Contracted pelvis:-50% or more occipito –posterior position is associated with either an anthropoid or android pelvis due to narrow fore-pelvis.

2. Fetus – deflection of fetal head favours posterior position of the vertex. Causes of deflection are –

  • High pelvic inclination.
  • Placenta praevia, pelvic tumors.

3. Uterus – abnormal uterine contraction.

4. Pendulous abdomen esp. in multipara.

slide8
Diagnosis: –

Inspection :-

  • Abdomen looks flat below the umbilicus.

Palpation :-

Fundal height :- corresponds with period of amenorrhoea.

Fundal grip :- breech.

Lateral grip :-Foetal back is felt on rt. Flank of mother in in ROP & in left flank in LOP.

Fetal limbs are felt easily as knob like structure anteriorly.

Pelvic grip :-Head is not engaged.

-Cephalic prominance (sinciput) is not felt so prominent as found in well flexed occipito – anterior.

-In direct occipito – posterior the small sinciput is confused with breech.

slide9
-Auscultation :-

FHS is best heard in flank in direct occipito – posterior / R.O.P. but difficult in L.O.P.

Vaginal examination :-

  • Finding depends upon degree of flexion of head.
  • Conformed dx. Is made during 2nd stage of labour on rupture of membrane by:-

a. Sagittal suture:- occupies any of the oblique diameter of pelvis.

b. posterior fontanelle :-felt near the sacro-iliac joint.

c. anterior fontanelle :- felt near the ilio-pectineal eminence.

slide11

Mechanism of labour –

  • Head engages through the right oblique diameter in R.O.P. & Left oblique diameter in L.O.P. Because of deflection engagement is delayed.
  • In most of the cases (90%) –

a. flexion – due to good uterine contraction there is flexion of head.

b. internal rotation of the head – occiput rotates to 135 degrees anteriorly to lie behind the symphysis pubis, shoulder rotates to occupy right oblique diameter.

3. Further descent & delivery of the head occurs like occipito – anterior position.

4. Birth of shoulders & trunk – is the same as that of occipito anterior.

fate of opp
Fate of OPP

OPP

Engaging diameter :- occipito-frontal 11.5cm or sub-occipitofrontal 10cm.

Unfavorable (10%)

Favorable (90%)

3/8th rotation

Moderate deflexion

Severe deflexion

Mild deflexion

occipit comes under symphysis pubis (rt/lt occipito anterior)

Occiput rotate by 1/8th circle

Non-rotation

Occiput rotate posteriorly by 1/8th

Oblique posterior arrest

POPP/ occipito-sacral position

Deep transverse arrest

Normal vaginal delivery

Face to pubis delivery

Arrest

slide15

Factors favouring long anterior rotation

(1) Well flexed head.     

(2) Good uterine contractions.              

(3) Roomy pelvis.

(4) Good pelvic floor.     

(5) No premature rupture of membranes.

Causes of failure of long anterior rotation:

(1) Deflexed head.                          

(2) Uterine inertia.

(3) Contracted pelvis: rotation of the head cannot easily occur in android pelvis due to projection of the ischial spines and convergence of the side walls.            

(4) Lax or rigid pelvic floor.

(5) Premature rupture of membranes or its rupture early in labour.

management
Management

During 1st stage:-

  • Early diagnosis
  • Fetal, maternal condition and pelvic assessment should be done.
  • Prevent rupture of membrane by bed rest in lt. lateral position.
  • Partograph to be strictly maintain.
  • Early c/s in contracted pelvis.
second stage
Second stage

p/v exam:- To see level of presenting part, degree of flexion, position, caput, moulding, cx.

2nd stage

Unfavorable (10%)

Favorable (90%)

Ant. 3/8th rotation

Moderate deflexion

Severe deflexion

Mild deflexion

occipit comes under symphysis pubis (rt/lt occipito anterior)

Occiput ant. rotate by 1/8th circle

Non-rotation

Occiput rotate posteriorly by 1/8th

Oblique posterior arrest

Deep transverse arrest

POPP/ occipito-sacral position

Normal vaginal delivery

management of dta
Management of DTA

DTA or oblique posterior arrest

Assisted delivery

Dead baby

Inadequate pelvis

Pelvis adequate

-Manual rotation of occiput to anterior position followed by forceps extraction

- vacuum delivery

- forceps rotation

C/S

Craniotomy

slide19

Manual rotation and extraction by forceps:

Under general anaesthesia the following steps are done:

1-Disimpaction: the head is grasped bitemporally and pushed slightly upwards.

2-Flexion of the head.

3-Rotation of the occiput anteriorly by the right hand vaginally aided by,

- Rotation of the anterior shoulder abdominally towards the middle line by the left hand or an assistant.

4-- Fix the head abdominally by an assistant, apply forceps and extract it

slide20
POPP

POPP

Arrest

Spontaneous face to pubis delivery

Dead baby

Adequate pelvis

Inadequate pelvis

C/S

Head above the ischial spine / big baby

Head below the spines

Craniotomy

Forceps with deep episiotomy

Manual rotation + forceps

C/S (best)

slide21
Prognosis –

Increased maternal morbidity due to pronlonged labour & increased incidence of operative delivery.