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Social Darwinism. t heory developed by philosopher Herbert Spencer from Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution argued that society progresses through competition, with the fitting rising to positions of wealth and power. Social Darwinism II.

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social darwinism

Social Darwinism

theory developed by philosopher Herbert Spencer from Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution

argued that society progresses through competition, with the fitting rising to positions of wealth and power

social darwinism ii
Social Darwinism II
  • the “fittest” individuals, businesses, or nations should and would rise to positions of wealth and power
  • the “unfit” would fail
  • social Darwinists believed that any attempts to help the poor or less capable actually slowed social progress
  • some religious leaders believed being one of the “fittest” was a sign of Christian virtue
  • social Darwinism and social class both have the word “social”
  • in society it is “better” to be richer or fitter than poorer or less fit

Vertical Integration


When firms bought up everything from the production process. Anything from raw materials to transportation and distribution.

Abby Blank



  • Vertical Integration is still used to this day because it is more efficient and is cheap.
  • Andrew Carnegie’s true success came from vertical integration because he realized that if he purchased supplies in bulk and producing goods in large quantities he could lower production costs and increase his profits.
  • For example he purchased iron and coal mines, which were the raw materials necessary to run his steam mills. He also bought steamship lines and railroads to transport these materials.
  • Because he controlled businesses at each stage of production he could sell steal at a much lower price then his competitors.


A distributing meat company had discovered that the leftover meat from the cows could make glue. So the owner opened up a glue company and this saved money, and made production more efficient.

Arrangement grouping several companies under a single board of directors to eliminate competition and to regulate production

Exclusive economic control of an industry


  • Taking control of a large industry and running it as a business to make money
  • Trying to buy as much properties as you can such as land, buildings and even industry's to make a profit
  • Taking many different companies under one principal
  • Placing the companies under one director would sometimes make more money because the competition decresed
  • In the loved bored game Monopoly, the object is to take control of all the properties and earn the most money
  • A monopoly in real life is economic control of an industry
  • The popular brand NIKE owns the popular company JORDAN
  • Trust is the act of one principal (NIKE) taking other companies (JORDAN) under their wing
A pioneer of communications technology; made telegraph that had the ability to send four messages at the same time

Thomas Alva Edison


Edison was a very innovative man, especially with communication technology. He developed a newer telegraph model that had the ability to send four simultaneous messages. Later on, he even invented and patented a telegraphic stock ticker. Overall, Thomas Alva Edison made a crucial contribution to the Industrial Revolution.



One of the most significant advances in communication in the 1800’s developed Samuel F.B Morse.


This device made an impact on the way people communicated with others. Morse’s dot-and-dash code could send an operator a business order to go to a close destination in minutes. The telegraph would send information for businesses, the government, newspapers, and to private citizens. The leading telegraph company was Western Union, which had more than 2,000 telegraph offices. The railroad had increased along with the telegraph, a main reason was because telegraph companies were put in every train stations.


This connects to talking on a phone. You “tele” person with a telegraph.

transcontinental railroad


A project to connect the east and west by railroads. The union pacific and central pacific met in the middle to complete this.


After the Bessemer process, there was a significant growth in railroad expansion. Railroads used to be used only for local transportation. Over a short period of time there was a great expansion and it made life easier. The first transcontinental railroad was finished in 1869. the union and central pacific railroads joined to make a single line from Nebraska to the Pacific Ocean.



Exclusive right to manufacture or sell inventions


A patent gives you the excusive right to use, make, or sell an invention. Elijah McCoy received a patent for his invention to protect his rights. Today most inventors and business owners get patents so that others cannot take their ideas.


On Shark Tank many inventors patent their inventions so that their ideas aren’t stolen.

Bessemer Process: Efficient method of making steal developed by British inventor Henry Bessemer and American inventor William Kelly

In my mind the Bessemer process is a process of steelmaking that burned of the impurities in iron with hot air. The Bessemer process also could produce as much steel in a day than old ways used to produce in a week. This process definitely effected the steel industry and the industrial revolution.


Communism- political theory that proposes that all people should collectively own property and the means of production and that individual ownership should not be allowed


Communism is a political way of thinking in which everyone is equal in every possible way. There’s no ‘private property’ and this concept would be called ‘common ownership’. In addition to this, there wouldn’t be any classes or states, resulting in a completely equal (or utopian, which was meant to be another result of communism) society.

homestead riot

Homestead Riot

In 1892 at Andrew Carnegie’s Homestead Steel Works in Homestead Pa, workers went on a strike to protest wage cuts. The managers responded by a lock out and hired 300 guards to protect the plant. A crash between the strikers and guards led to 16 deaths.

homestead riot1
Homestead Riot

The workers were mad about wage cuts, so they went on a strike. The managers of the steel works had made a lock out and hired 300 guards to protect the steel works. Between the workers and guards there was violence, which happened to kill 16 people. This all happened in Homestead, Pennsylvania at Andrew Carnegie’s Homestead Steel Works. This is also called the Homestead Strike.

homestead riot3
Homestead Riot

A way to remember this is that is happened at a steel works in Pennsylvania and the Pittsburgh football team is called the Steelers.

the great upheaval

The Great Upheaval

A year of intense strikes and violent labor confrontations.

the great upheaval1
The Great Upheaval
  • Workers wanted higher pay and better working conditions
  • Pay was cut because of economic depression
  • More than 1,500 strikes across the nation occurred
  • Knights of Labor was involved in most of the strikes
  • Many of these turned violent
  • The worst was the Haymarket Riot
  • The Great Upheaval can be remembered by thinking of upheaval as violently turning something over, like the riots.
george westinghouse


*made a compressed-air brake increased railroad safety by enabling the locomotive and all its cars to stop at the same time

george westinghouse1


*also developed a transformer that could transmit a high voltage alternating current allowed continued expansion of the use of electricity in urban households and industry





Carried a wide variety of products.

  • Were the special domain of women, for shopping and working.
  • Bought products in bulk therefore offered low prices to their consumers

First Department Stores

Marshall Field in Chicago

R.H. Macy in New York City

John Wanamaker in Philadelphia



  • Department store are still relevant today.
  • Macys, Sears, and Bloomingdales are examples of department stores.
  • People still go to department stores today.
haymarket riot

Haymarket Riot

Incident in which a bomb exploded during a labor protest held in Haymarket Square in Chicago, killing several police officers



The riot was a misunderstanding between the workers, and their employer Haymarket. Haymarket cut everyone’s wage down so much that they went on strike. The strikers were having a rally and police officers came to remove them, a bomb went off and killed seven officers. In retaliation the police arrested eight anarchists that could have conspired to do this. Only one of them was present at the time of the bombing.


This riot can be connected to today’s strikes. Big corporations of workers that refuse to work. Locally we had a strike in Neshaminy school district. The teachers refused to work until they got what they wanted. This is very similar to the Haymarket Riot, but without the violence.

american federation of labor

American Federation of Labor

Definition- The American Federation of Labor was a union that worked too advance the interests of skilled workers.


After the Great Upheaval many skilled workers joined this union founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886. The American Federation of Labor organized independent craft unions into a group that worked to advance the interests of skilled workers.


A connection for the American Federation of labor could be to remember that like today, we are trying to improve the interests of workers like they were in the AFL.

sherman antitrust act
Sherman Antitrust Act

Passed by the US government to ban abusive monopolies

Avoided monopolies that would destroy the government

Made it illegal for companies to seek a monopoly on a product

Prevented huge monopolies from gaining too much control

Did not allow forming trusts to get rid of all competition

remember the sherman antitrust act
Remember the Sherman Antitrust Act

Anti means against

Anti is in the word Antitrust

The Sherman Antitrust Act was against abusive monopolies


Cornelius Vanderbilt

Pioneer of the railroad industry and was the third richest man in America’s history.


Vanderbilt dominated the railroad industry and his money is equal to 185 billion dollars today. He also controlled lines connecting Chicago, Cleveland, New York, and Toledo.


He owned New York Central Railroad, which was later merged with Pennsylvania railroad and created the Penn Central Transportation Company, was a railroad that transported out of Philadelphia.

term horizontal integration



Taking control of other companies producing the same product

By: Griffin Smith

per. 6/8



This term means to me to buy out all of your competitors.

Rockefeller did this to the oil business and he told the men whose companies he was buying that they would get a share of his stock Standard Oil if they gave them the rights to their companies.

Some major companies today that are horizontally integrated are Pepsi, Oracle, and Amazon



When ever you think about Horizontal Integration think about Rockefeller because his company began from buying out others.



andrew carnegie

Andrew Carnegie

Scottish-American industrialist

Real success was reducing production costs

  • Carnegie was a master at utilizing new business strategies
  • Organized all his companies into the Carnegie Steel Company
  • Donated more than $350 million to charities which was later established into institutions
  • Think of Carnegie Hall. Andrew Carnegie built this concert venue for really skilled musicians.
john d rockefeller

John D. Rockefeller

Was an American industrialist and philanthropist.

One of the founders of the Standard Oil Company.

  • John D. Rockefeller was one of the founders of the Standard Oil Company and was one of the richest men in the country. When he was 56 years old he retired and became a philanthropist.
  • Rockefeller was the rock of the American Oil Company.


A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by the government to an inventor for a limited period of time, in exchange for the public acknowledgement of the invention.


A right given to you by the government that allows you to sell, use, or make your invention

This right is protected and you're only allowed to possess it for a period of time

  • A way to remember patent is to remember the word protect because your invention is protected with a patent.
  • They both start with P, end with T and have 2 syllables


transcontinental railroad1

Transcontinental Railroad

Formed by the Central Pacific railroad and the Union Pacific railroad from Omaha, Nebraska to the Pacific. The Pacific railroad act allowed the building of the railroad.


Transcontinental Railroad

  • A continuous network of railroads that cross over a large mass of land and ends at an ocean or land border.
  • It was North America’s link for trade, commerce and travel and connected the western side to the eastern side
  • Helped make settlement in the west quicker and less expensive and helped grow the economy

Transcontinental Railroad

  • “Trans” in transcontinental looks like trains, and trains go across the transcontinental railroad
  • Transcontinental and travel both start with “t” and the transcontinental railroad was a type of travel across the continent
t elegraph


By: Jack Geiger


Machine patented by Samuel Morse in 1837

  • Developed in the 1830s and 1840s this invention revolutionized long distance communication
  • Transmitted electrical signals by wire
  • You can get the root word tele from the word telegraph... WHICH IS ALSO USED IN THE WORD TELEPHONE!
thomas alva e dison

Thomas Alva Edison

By: Kelsey Gallagher


Thomas Edison

Pioneer of communication and technology. Edison and fellow researchers made significant discoveries and advances in electricity, light bulbs, phonographs, and early motion-picture cameras.


First major invention was the telegraph of up to 4 messages over the same wire at the same time.

  • Inventions had a significant influence on telegraphic communications
  • Patented an electronic an electronic vote recorder and a telegraphic stock ticket
  • Opened first electric power plant in new york
  • When he died he had over 1,000 patents


Thomas Edison made many advances with electricity involving the telegraph and the light bulb.

Edison and Electricity both begin with E


Definition: Theory that opposes government regulation of economic matters

  • Laissez-faire means “to let people do as they choose.”


Laissez-Faire Capitalism

The picture represents citizens opposing the government and wanting to shut them down for regulation matters


Free EnterpriseBelief that the economy will prosper if businesses are left free from government regulation and allowed to compete in a free market.


No government control over businesses

  • Economy benefits
  • Businesses can compete
social darwinism2
Social Darwinism
  • Proposed by Herbert Spencer
  • Ideas adapted from Charles Darwin’s theory
  • Survival of the fittest
    • “Fittest” rise to positions of wealth and power
    • “Unfit” failed
  • Society progressed through competition
  • Believed that attempts to help poor slowed down social progresses

Herbert Spencer

Charles Darwin

Only the “fittest” rise to power.

remembering social darwinism
Remembering Social Darwinism

To remember Social Darwinism remember the two S’s

  • Social Darwinism
  • Survival of the fittest
define terms

Define terms

Trust – Arrangement grouping several companied under a single board of directors to eliminate competition and to regulate production.

Monopoly – Exclusive economic control of an industry.

By: Shaun Boggs

explain term
  • Trust – A group of companies that join together to defeat rival companies.
  • Monopoly – The possession of most or all supply of an industry.
  • The game monopoly shows a monopoly. It shows this because the objective is to own everything so that the other companies (people) go bankrupt.
bessemer process

Bessemer process

Efficient method of making steel; developed by British inventor Henry Bessemer and American inventor William Kelly in the 1850s

bessemer process1
Bessemer process

A way of making steel by putting the molten iron in a container and blasting air through the container to get rid of the impure materials.

way to remember
Way to remember

Bessemer iron: because Henry Bessemer created this process and they make the steel in a pig iron