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Employees Motivation. UHS 2062 LECTURES at UTM Skudai . Prepared by Siti Rokiah Siwok , August 2009 [email protected] Motivation and Work.

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Employees motivation

Employees Motivation

UHS 2062 LECTURES at UTM Skudai.

Prepared by SitiRokiahSiwok, August 2009

[email protected]

Motivation and work
Motivation and Work

  • IO psychologists generally define work motivation as the internal force that drives a worker to action , as well as the external factors that encourage the actions (Locke & Latham, 2002 in Aamodt, 2007).

  • Ability and skill determine the employee can do the job.

  • Motivation determines whether the employee will do the job properly.

  • Generally psychologist agree that increased employee motivation results in increased job performance.

Theory x and theory y
Theory X and Theory Y

  • In his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor proposed two theories by which to view employee motivation.

  • He avoided descriptive labels and simply called the theories Theory X and Theory Y.

Theory x
Theory X

  • People cannot be trusted, they are irrational , unreliable and inherently lazy.

  • Therefore people need to be controlled and motivated using financial incentives, threats and punishment.

  • In the absence of such controls, people will pursue their own goals , which will be in conflict with those of their work organisation.

Theory y
Theory Y

  • People seek independence, self-development and creativity in their work.

  • People can see further than their immediate circumstances and are able to adapt to new ones.

  • They are moral and responsible beings, who, if treated as such, will strive for good of their organisation.

Needs values and wants
Needs, values and wants

  • Work motivation and job satisfaction are also determined by the discrepancy between what we want, value and expect, and what actually the job provides.

  • Three theories focus on employees’ needs and values: Maslow’s needs hierarchy, ERG theory and two-factor theory.

Needs theories
Needs Theories

  • Need theories are based on the idea that there are psychological needs, that lie behind human behaviour.

  • When our needs are unmet we experience tension or disequilibrium which we try to put right; which means we behave in ways that satisfy our needs.

Maslow s hierarchy of needs1
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • Hierarchical , meaning that the lower-level needs have to be satisfied before one is concerned with the next level (like the staircase).

  • Each level is taken a step at a time and thus the higher level need cannot be reached until the lower- level need is satisfied

Humanistic perspective
Humanistic perspective

  • The humanistic perspective emphasis free will , the ability to make choices and come to decisions in their lives (Feldman, 2006).

  • Carl Rogers, a major proponent of the humanistic perspective, suggests that all people have a need for positive regard, results from the underlying need to be loved and respect.

  • Maslow suggest s that self actualization is the primary goal in life.

  • Self actualization is a state of self fulfillment in which people achieve their highest potential in their own unique way (Feldman, 2006).

Evaluation of maslow s theory
Evaluation of Maslow’s Theory

  • “Maslow’ theory is popular and stood the test of time, but not very much supported by research.

  • The biggest “problem” with regards to the levels. …need there be five? Or two or three enough?

  • There are people who skip levels .

  • What about overlapping of levels?

Erg theory
ERG Theory

  • To address the limitation of Maslow’s Theory, , Clayton Alderfer proposed the ERG theory, which like Maslow's theory, describes needs as a hierarchy.

  • The letters ERG stand for three levels of needs: Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.

  • The ERG theory is based on the work of Maslow, so it has much in common with it but also differs in some important aspects.

  • Other research supports the number of levels as proposed by Alderfer.

Erg theory1
ERG Theory

  • According to this theory, people can skip levels.

  • ERG theory also explains why a higher-level need sometimes do not become more important once a lower-level need has been satisfied. There are other factors.

  • Overlapping of levels has been addressed by reducing the number of levels to three

Two factor theory
Two-factor theory

  • Two-factor theory was proposed by Herzberg (1966), in which job related factors are divided into two categories: hygiene factors and motivators.

  • Hygiene factors are those job-related elements that related from, but not involving the job itself. Examples :

    • pay and benefits

    • making friends

      (These are results of the work, but do not involve the work itself)

Two factor theory1
Two-factor theory

  • Motivators are the job elements that concern the actual task and duties.

  • For employees to have motivation and satisfaction, both hygiene factors and motivators must be present.

  • This theory make sense but has not receive research support.

  • The theory is being criticisedbecause of the methods to develop the two factors

Two factor theory2
Two-factor theory

Hygiene factors


  • Pay

  • Security

  • Co workers

  • Working conditions

  • Company policy

  • Work schedule

  • Supervisors

  • Responsibilities

  • Growth

  • Challenge

  • Stimulation

  • Independence

  • Variety

  • control


  • Aamodt, M.G (2007). Industrial /organizational psychology. An applied approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson

  • Arnold, J ( 2005). Work Psychology. Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace (4thed). England : Pearson Education Ltd.

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation

  • http://www.wadsworth.com/cgi-wadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fid

  • http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/mcgregor/

  • Feldman, R. S. (2006) Development across the lifespan. (4thed). New Jersey: Pearson Education.