Happy Thursday! Pick up an agenda on the stand in the front Put your name on Vocab and turn it in to the black box on my desk Congratulations! The following students received an “A” on the test: Jamie Nick Brady Rachel Cardenas Kevin Ewen Rachel Clem Jack Sammy Zaara Myranda Ahsan
American Revolution French and Indian War
What’s going on in the colonies? (review) • England is not the only country to have colonies in the New World • Spain in Florida, Central America and western North America • France- Canada and central North America • Mercantilism • Navigation Acts- Hard to enforce • Salutary Neglect
Sowing Seeds of Self- Government • Every colony at this point had: • Governor- appointed by the king • Advisory council- appointed by the Governor • Local Assembly- elected by eligible colonists and paid the Governor’s salary • Colonists desired more economic and political breathing room but still felt loyal to the British Crown
France in the New World • 1608-1st city/settlement Quebec- Canada • 1689- claimed the entire Mississippi Valley, naming Louisiana after King Louis XIV • There is a smaller population of French colonists than English colonists • They have friendlier relations with the natives • Need their help with trade
Stop and Think! What impact does France’s presence in North America have on the Colonist and England?
France Fans Out • The French fan out by following the beaver • Beaver fur was a profitable export • Started to collide with English colonies • Jesuits- French Missionaries spread out to convert Natives to Christianity • Fan out along the Ohio River Valley
Warfare • The type of warfare used in the New World was called Guerilla Warfare • Ambushes, surprise attacks • Mostly used by French and Spanish • British used a traditional style of warfare
The French and Indian War 1756-1763 • Also known as the Seven Years War • Mostly fought over control of the Ohio Valley • French built Fort Duquesne where the Ohio River forms (modern day Pittsburgh) • The Virginia Governor sends a militia to evict the French because they had claim to that land • Militia was led by George Washington
French/Indian War War went back and forth and was undeclared for 2 years The war was fought all over the world (remember it was part of a bigger war) England and Prussia v. France, Spain Austria and Russia Not a lot of troops were sent to the colonies
Stop and Think!! If England refuses to send a lot of troops to the colony, who will they rely on for troops against the French in North America?
Colonial Unity? • The Colonies were not unified because they had different identities • Different cultures, economies, religions, geography, transportation issues • Albany Plan of Union -Benjamin Franklin comes up with an idea to unite the colonies- meet in Albany • Representatives of 7 out of the 13 colonies showed up and all the colonies north of VA unify • They then become allies with the Iroquois tribe
Join or Die! • Franklin drew this image to encourage people in the colonies to unite • The cartoon was inspired by superstitions that a sliced snake would revive if the pieces of the body were joined before sunset
The War • General Braddock: British general- mission was to drive the French out of the Ohio River Valley • Fought against French soldiers and their Native American allies • He was ambushed and defeated- not used to the warfare
The War cont. • William Pitt was appointed the new leader by King George III • The British army finally started winning battles • The Iroquois tribe, which was very powerful allied with the British to balance those of the French
Turning Point • The turning point of the war was on the Plains of Abraham just outside Quebec • British troops under General James Wolfe surprise attacked Quebec • Was able to get the colonists to join by promising to make Parliament pay the cost • This led to a British triumph in the war
Treaty of Paris (1763) • Great Britain claimed all of North America east of the Mississippi River including Florida which was owned by Spain (an ally of France) • Kicked the French out! • Spain gained the French lands west of the Mississippi including the city of New Orleans • France kept only a few small islands near Newfoundland and in the West Indies
Interactions between English and Colonists • The English viewed the colonists as back woodsy, hicks, uncivilized • The Colonists viewed the English as mean, snobby, dumb • Colonists stationed troops in territories to control Native Americans • Colonist thought the Native Americans might turn on them • This cost them a lot of money
English also feel… • The colonists were left too much on their own • Britain is regretting Salutary Neglect • Colonists are creating their own gov’t, religion economy apart from Britain • The colonists didn’t help enough with the war effort • Taxed the colonists for the war effort • But wait a minute- they were supposed to foot the bill!
Stop and Think! What was this impact of the British taxing the colonists for the war?
Colonial gains from the war Self confidence The need for colonial unity No need for English protection from the French b/c they’re gone They no longer see British as invincible
Proclamation of 1763 • Native Americans feared that the growing number of British settlers crossing the Appalachian mountains • would drive away the game they depended on • Spring 1763, Pontiac (Ottawa leader) rebels and captures 8 British forts • To avoid further conflict, British gov’t issued the Proclamation of 1763: banned all settlement west of the Appalachians. • Hard to enforce
Happy Monday! • Pick up an Agenda on the stand in the front and answer the warm-up question on the back • Turn in your French and Indian War worksheet to the black box on my desk • If you still need to turn in your study guide from last unit or American Revolution Vocab please put it in the box on my desk
American Revolution Road to Revolution
Proclamation of 1763 • Event: British announced the land won during the French/ Indian War (west of Appalachian Mountains) would be reserved for Native Americans- banned settlement of Colonists • Brit. Rationale: to prevent future wars with Natives • Colonial Rationale: thought the British intended to maintain a tighter control over the colonists
Quartering Act • Event: required colonists to put British soldiers up in their homes and had to provide fuel, candles, beer and transportation for the soldiers • British Rationale: troops can stay in the colonies to keep an eye on the Native Americans and colonists for freedom • Colonial Rationale: felt the British should have asked for permission before passing an act that affected their personal lives and thought they were using the soldiers to spy on them
Stamp Act 1765 Event: required the colonists to pay a tax on most printed materials (newspapers, pamphlets, marriage licenses, playing cards) British Rationale: British were in debt after the French and Indian War and felt the colonists should help pay b/c the Brits were “defending” the colonists from the French Colonial Rationale: felt that their freedom had been threatened b/c they had no say in making the law.- The Stamp Act Congress
Townshend Acts of 1767 Event: Charles Townshend (Brit. Prime Minister) imposed a tax on glass, lead, paper and tea-collected at sea ports British Rationale: get money from the colonies without them noticing they were paying taxes Colonial Rationale: portray their disdain for the taxes and to show the British that they will not be taken advantage of
Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 Event: fighting broke out over jobs in the shipyards. Mob gathers around the Customs House and taunts the guards. Shots are fired, 5 colonists die including Crispus Attucks- former slave British Rationale: protecting themselves from an angry mob Colonial Rationale: Present the event as an attack on defenseless citizens and communicate with other colonies about the threat to American liberties- communication network
Boston Tea Party 1773 Event: Tea act passed in 1773 forcing colonists to only buy tea from the British East India Company (Tea Act). Sons of Liberty dressed as Native Americans and raided 3 British Ships in the Boston Harbor dumping 340 chests of tea into the harbor British Rationale: British East India Company had a monopoly but was hit hard by boycotts and almost bankrupt Colonies Rationale: saw the tea act as an example of the British making a decision that concerned the colonists without consulting them
Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) Events: series of laws make colonist pay for tea that was lost; closed port of Boston and imposed martial law (rule imposed by military force) British Rationale: King George III was infuriated by the organized destruction of British property Colonial Rationale: draw up a declaration of colonial rights
First Continental Congress Event: Representatives from 12 of the 13 colonies met in Philadelphia and drew up the Declaration of Rights and a complete boycott of all trade with England Colonial Rationale: present their complaints as a unified group
Lexington and Concord Event: British troops marched from Boston to Lexington and Concord to take stores of colonial gunpowder, and guns and to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock; met colonial minutemen (soldiers) and first shots were fired British Rationale: to put down any rebel activity Colonial Rationale: to spread the ideas of independence, draft a new appeal to the King, and select George Washington to head the army of minutemen
People Patrick Henry: Governor of VA, strong supporter of Revolution “Give me liberty or give me death!”- to get support for revolution Sam Adams: Founded the Sons of Liberty, a secret resistance group consisting of shopkeepers, artisans, and laborers John Adams: came up with a plan at the 2nd Continental Congress that each colony set up its own gov’t and that Congress declare the colonies Independent
People Ben Franklin: American Enlightenment thinker, big supporter of Independence, one of the men appointed to negotiate a treaty after the war (Treaty of Paris 1783) Thomas Paine: writer of Common Sense, a pamphlet that circulated around the colonies attacking King George III and demanding indep. Thomas Jefferson: Writer of the Dec. of Indep. which declared that all men had the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”
Happy Friday! Pick up an Agenda on the stand in the front and do the warm-up on the back Turn in your project if you haven't already done so Remediation is due! Turn it into the box on my desk!
American Revolution Declaration of Independence
Enlightenment • During the 1600s and 1700s Europe was experiencing a period known as the “Enlightenment” • From it came new ideas about the rights of people and their relationship to their ruler
John Locke • Enlightenment thinker whose ideas influenced the American belief in self-government • Wrote that all people are free, equal, and have “natural rights” of life, liberty and property that rulers cannot take away • Power resides in the people • “social contract” for a government to protect their rights and in return the people promise to obey the laws and rules • “ordered liberty”
Locke Continued Government’s powers are limited to those that people have given to it Whenever gov’t becomes a threat to the people’s natural rights, breaking the social contract, the people have the right to overthrow it HIS THOUGHTS WERE RADICAL AND CHALLENGED THE PRACTICES OF DICTORIAL RULE (KINGS, EMPERORS, ETC.)
Stop and Think!! • How does Locke’s ideas challenge Monarchies like England?