Literal Language • The literal meaning of a word is its dictionary definition. For example: A biographyis the life story of a real person.
Using Context Clues • On the CAHSEE, you may run into a word you have never seen. How can you figure it out? In context (using the clues of the words surrounding it). Exp: The tree oozed with a sticky resin. • What are the clues? Circle them on your paper. • If the word resin was just a blank line, what word could you substitute for it?
Context Clues • You may find different types of context clues within the sentence or paragraph that the difficult world is in: • Synonym/restatement • Antonym/contradiction • Definition or description • Example • Comparison and contrast • Cause and effect
Tips to Remember Literal Definitions • Mnemonic devices- memory tricks to remember the meaning of a word. • Rhymes, silly sentences, or letter clues • Personal: The mnemonic needs to be something you will remember. Exp: Mnemonic for remembering spelling:I before E except after C,and when sounding like "ay" as in Neighbor or Weigh
Mental Images-create a picture or cartoon in your mind to help you remember the word. Exp: Imagine the letters in the word frigid (“extremely cold”) shaking because they are freezing cold, and are in an icy place. Tips to Remember Literal Definitions Possible mental image: Frigid
Figurative Language • Also called figures of speech • It changes the literal meaning of words • to express complexity,• to capture a physical or sensory effect, or • to extend meaning. • There are a number of figures of speech. Some of the more common ones are:
Simile • Making a comparison between unlike things, using “like” or “as.” Exp: Forrest Gump’s famous simile is “Life is like a box of chocolates. You never know what you’re going to get.” What two things are being compared in this simile?
Metaphor • Making a comparison between unlike things without the use “like” or “as.” An example is, “You are my sunshine.” – What two unlike things are being compared in this quote?
Personification • Giving human qualities to an animal, thing or idea. • The telephone screamed to be answered. • The door flew open. • The birds shouted their songs.
Idioms • An idiom is a figurative, sometimes strange, expression that cannot be understood if taken literally. Exp: “It is raining cats and dogs” “This test will be a piece of cake” “She decided to quit cold turkey”
Test Question 1 • literal meaning of a word is a. Its definition based on literary works • Its dictionary definition • Its common or street usage • Its usage during the 1700s
Test Question 2 • Which of the items below is NOT a type of context clue? • Synonym/restatement • Antonym/contradiction • Definition or description • Bold text • Example • Comparison and contrast • Cause and effect
Test Question 3 • Which item below is not a simile? • She was as beautiful as a summer day • His anger was like the hot asphalt on bare feet • His car’s engine roared like a caged beast ready to pounce • The crowd became a wounded animal when the other team scored the winning goal
Test Question 4 • Which item below is not a metaphor? • She was a jungle cat ready to destroy the opposition • The car was a steamroller as it plowed through the wall • He is a tank plowing through he defense • She is as graceful as a gazelle
Test Question 5 • Which item below is not an example of personification? • The car cried as it sat crashed and on fire • The dog yelled welcome home to its owner • The pig was angry as it ate • The siren screamed to all that could hear it
Test Question 6 • Which is not an Idiom? • Have a food fight • To pay through the nose • To take someone under your wing • To pull your weight