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Literary Terms. We will be using these literary terms throughout the school year. You need to keep up with your notes. Don’t lose your terms! You might be able to use them – be RESPONSIBLE!!. We will use the following terms:. Character Antagonist Protagonist
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Literary Terms We will be using these literary terms throughout the school year. You need to keep up with your notes. Don’t lose your terms! You might be able to use them – be RESPONSIBLE!!
We will use the following terms: Character Antagonist Protagonist Diction Denotation Connotation Imagery Mood Poetry Devices Exposition Rising Action Climax Falling Action Resolution Conflict Flashback Foreshadowing Suspense Point of View Setting Mood Theme Tone Personification Metaphor Simile Oxymoron Alliteration Onomatopoeia Hyperbole Irony Inference Haiku Round Character Flat Character Motif Allusion
Fiction • Imaginary elements • Sci-Fi / Fantasy / Horror / Adventure • Can be based on real people and events • Realistic fiction/historical fiction
Nonfiction • Real events, people, and places • Autobiography/biography • Personal narrative/memoirs • Newspapers • Informative articles
Character A character is a person or an animal that takes part in the action of a literary work.
Edward Cullen from Twilight Shakespeare’s Titatnia Queen of the faeries in A Midsummer Night’s Dream Jace from The Mortal Instruments Wilbur from Charlotte’s Web
Round vs Flat CharacterStatic vs Dynamic Character • Round = diverse, well-developed with several character traits • Dynamic = undergoes a change of some kind (personality, thoughts, or beliefs) by the end of the story • Flat = minor character we know little about with limited characteristics—2 dimensional • Static = character that never changes personality, thoughts, or beliefs President Snow is an unwavering, static character who remained steadfast in his thoughts and actions in The Hunger Games Katniss Everdeen in The Hunger Games is a Round/Dynamic Character that undergoes major changes from saving her sister to taking down the capitol.
Round/Dynamic & Flat/Static • Most major characters are round characters that usually undergo a change which means they can be round and dynamic • However, some round characters can remain static or unchanging • Most flat characters are also 1 dimensional and unchanging which also makes them static. • Round/Dynamic protagonists are common • Characters that are flat are often static as well and are often minor characters but some major characters are static • Let's put it all together now--Check this out
Protagonist • The Protagonist is the main character in a literary work • Comes from prefix pro meaning for, to move forward • Can you name some famous Protagonists that are found in literature?
Protagonists also come in all shapes, sizes, species, etc. Ender—from? Ponyboy Curtis and the Greasers Catherine & Heathcliff Katniss Everdeen—from? Who is the main protagonist? Who is this?
The truth behind protagonists • In the past, were fictional protagonists primarily good or bad? • Can protagonists of stories, novels, video games, movies, etc. be considered immoral or bad? • Can authors or directors manipulate the reader to support , root for, or even like protagonists that are bad? • Can you think of any bad guys/gals that are protagonists?
Protagonists that are “bad” The story of how Elpha became the Wicked Witch—novel to Broadway Appearances can be deceiving Amy Dunn—the wife who found her revenge Comic book to Big Screen Good or Bad? From Showtime’s series Dexter
Antagonist • The Antagonist is a character or force in conflict with a main character, or protagonist. • Does not have to be human • Comes from prefix anti—meaning opposing/opposite
Do you know your Antagonists??? • On your paper take a few minutes to write down some Antagonists that you can recall from short stories, novels, movies, television shows, and video games • Remember the Antagonist is in conflict with the Protagonist, or main character! • Helpful hint – you should now know why people use the saying “Don’t antagonize me!”
NAME THAT ANTAGONIST Antagonists can be anyone or anything that poses as an obstacle for the protagonist
Imagery Imagery is words or phrases that appeal to one or more of the five senses. Writers use imagery to describe how their subjects look, sound, feel, taste, and smell.
IMAGERY IN THE OLDEN DAYS“I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud” by William Wadsworth • I wandered lonely as a cloudThat floats on high o'er vales and hills,When all at once I saw a crowd,A host, of golden daffodils;Beside the lake, beneath the trees,Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. • Continuous as the stars that shineAnd twinkle on the milky way,They stretched in never-ending lineAlong the margin of a bay:Ten thousand saw I at a glance,Tossing their heads in sprightly dance. • The waves beside them danced; but theyOut-did the sparkling waves in glee:A poet could not but be gay,In such a jocund company:I gazed---and gazed---but little thoughtWhat wealth the show to me had brought: • For oft, when on my couch I lieIn vacant or in pensive mood,They flash upon that inward eyeWhich is the bliss of solitude;And then my heart with pleasure fills,And dances with the daffodils.
EXAMPLES OF IMAGERY in Musical Poetry • If you're tired and hopeless, how can you show someone this instead of just telling them? • I took a walk around the world toEase my troubled mindI left my body laying somewhereIn the sands of timeI watched the world float to the darkSide of the moonI feel there is nothing I can do • --"Kryptonite" by Three Doors Down • If you're a rapper, instead of telling someone to let your freestyles come naturally, how can you show them with your words? • From the family tree of old school hip hop Kick off your shoes and relax your socksThe rhymes will spread just like a poxCause the music is live like an electric shock • --Beastie Boys "Intergalactic" From Hello Nasty • You Have to Show Me What You Are Saying--Check This Out
Figurative Language A figure of speech is a specific device or kind of figurative language, such as hyperbole, metaphor, personification, alliteration, onomatopoeia, simile, oxymoron or understatement. Figurative language is used for descriptive effect, often to imply ideas indirectly. It is not meant to be taken literally. Figurative language is used to state ideas in vivid and imaginative ways.
Metaphor A Metaphor is a type of speech that compares or equates two or more things that have something in common. A metaphor does NOT use like or as. Example: Life is a bowl of cherries.
Simile A Simile is another figure of speech that compares seemingly unlike things. Simile’s DO use the words like,as, than, or resembles. Example: Her voice was like nails on a chalkboard. Cover Your Ears Example: She laughed like a hyena
Personification Personification is a figure of speech in which an animal, object, force of nature, or idea is given human qualities or characteristics. Example: The chair held to me and rocked back and forth.
Alliteration Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words. Alliteration gives emphasis to words. --True alliteration is either 3 or more words with the same consonant sounds together or close by. --2 words can be alliteration but it is better when the 2 words are names such as Mickey Mouse Example: Take Tommy to the train station today.
Alliterative Fun Caring CatsRain • Caring cats cascade off Rain races, Laughing llamas Ripping like wind. Lounging. Its restless rage Underneath yelling yaks Rattles like Yelling at roaming Rocks ripping through Rats The air.
Onomatopoeia • The sound that is being described • A word given to the sound something makes
Hyperbole • An exaggeration • Often an extreme exaggeration • This can be used to add humor or for dramatic effect • This is also used to emphasize a point • Examples: That cracks me up • Examples: I laughed my head off.
Oxymoron An Oxymoron is a figure of speech that is a combination of seemingly contradictory words. Examples: Same difference Pretty ugly Roaring silence
Allusion • An Allusion is a figure of speech that makes a reference to people, places, events, or literary works directly or by implying them. • Mythology and The Bible are often mentioned or alluded to in literary works
Irony • Special contrast between reality and appearance • Usually one in which reality is the opposite from what it seems
Irony • Situational-contrast between what would seem appropriate and what really happens or what we expect to happen is in fact quite opposite to what really does take place • This is like a surprise ending or a twist in the plot that you didn’t expect. • Irony in Animated Films • When you think have a mystery or “whodunit” figured out and you are shocked at the end. Isn't It Ironic Don't You Think
Irony • Verbal-someone knowingly exaggerates or says one thing and means another • Sarcasm is often verbal irony—We use this in our every day lives • Example: “We try to be civilized here,” said General Zaroff. “The Most Dangerous Game”
Irony • Dramatic-When the reader or viewer knows something that a character does not know. • The writer wants the reader/audience to know. It is NOT A CLUE/HINT. It is direct. • Romeo and Juliet example
MOOD Mood, or atmosphere, is the feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage. • Writer’s use many devices to create mood, including images, dialogue, setting, and plot. • Often, a writer creates a mood at the beginning of a work and then sustains the mood throughout. • Sometimes, however, the mood of the work changes dramatically. **Edgar Alan Poe’s “The Tell-Tale Heart” emits a mood of terror based on the insanity of the murderous protagonist
Tone Tone is a reflection of a writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work. Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions and that evoke and emotional response from the reader. For example, word choice or phrasing may seem to convey respect, anger, lightheartedness, or sarcasm. What mood do you feel after watching this?
Style Style is the distinctive way in which an author uses language. Word choice, phrasing, sentence length, tone, dialogue, purpose, and attitude toward the audience and subject can all contribute to an author’s writing style.
Plot Plot is the sequence of events. The first event causes the second, the second causes the third, and so forth. In most novels, dramas, short stories, and narrative poems, the plot involves both characters and a central conflict. The plot usually begins with an exposition that introduces the setting, the characters, and the basic situation. This is introduced and developed. The conflict then increases until it reaches a high point of interest or suspense, the climax. The climax is followed by the falling action, or end, of the central conflict. Any events that occur during the falling action make up the resolution.
PLOTLINE Climax Rising Action Falling Action Resolution Exposition Conflict Introduced= Inciting Incident
Exposition The Exposition is the introduction. It is the part of the work that introduces the characters, setting, and basic situation. ***In Harry Potter & the Sorcerer Stone, we quickly learn that Harry was turning 11, had a mysterious scar on his forehead, was living with his very disgruntled and burdened aunt, uncle, and bullying cousin due to the death of his parents when he was a baby. At the end of the exposition, we learn that he was the product of two wizard parents and on his way to entering Hogwarts.
Rising Action Rising Action is the part of the plot that begins to occur as soon as the primary conflict is introduced. The rising action adds complications to the conflict and increases reader interest.
Climax The Climax is the point of greatest emotional intensity, interest, or suspense in the plot of a narrative. On a plot diagram, it is the highest point due to how intense it is and immediately after the climax, there is a drastic drop in events leading to the resolution. The climax typically comes at the turning point in a story or drama.
Falling Action Falling Action is the action that typically follows the climax and reveals its results.
Resolution The Resolution is the part of the plot that concludes the falling action by revealing or suggesting the outcome of the conflict.
Conflict Conflict is the struggle between opposing forces in a story or play. There are two types of conflict that exist in literature.
External Conflict External conflict exists when a character struggles against some outside force, such as another character, nature, society, or fate. Person vs. Person Person vs. Society Person vs. Nature (environment) Person vs. Machine (Technology) Person vs. Time Person vs. Supernatural Person vs. Fate (more currently accepted) These are the primary 4 and the ones we will focus on this year
Internal Conflict Internal conflict exists within the mind of a character who is torn between different courses of action. Questioning Having a Dilemma In a predicament What to Do? Example: Person vs. Self
Flashback A flashback is a literary device in which an earlier episode, conversation, or event is inserted into the sequence of events. Often flashbacks are presented as a memory of the narrator or of another character.
Flashback continued… The movie Titanic is told almost entirely in a flashback. What are some other films that contain flashback to help tell stories? Holes Willy Wonka Think of some more… Flashback in Literature brought to life
Foreshadowing Foreshadowing is the author’s use of clues to hint at what might happen later in the story. Writers use foreshadowing to build their readers’ expectations and to create suspense. This is used to help readers prepare for what is to come.