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LITERARY TERMS. Allegory. A story which has meaning on both the literal and figurative or moral level. Ex: Star Wars. Antagonist vs. Protagonist. Antagonist- the main adversary or enemy of the hero. Protagonist- the central hero of the story. Types of Characters.
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Allegory • A story which has meaning on both the literal and figurative or moral level. • Ex: Star Wars
Antagonist vs. Protagonist • Antagonist- the main adversary or enemy of the hero. • Protagonist- the central hero of the story.
Types of Characters • Flat- a flat character is one who expresses a single quality or idea. Usually a stereotype. • Round- usually at least 2-D or more fully developed. More lifelike. • A static character is one whose attitudes and beliefs do not change over course of a story/movie. • A dynamic character is one whose attitudes and beliefs do change over the course of a story or movie.
Comedy • A story in which the characters overcome adversity to reach a successful conclusion. • It is often light or humorous in tone.
Conflict • A struggle that occurs in the plot of a story. • Two types: • External—a character pitted against an outside force (ex:nature) • Internal—one that occurs within the character.
Denotation: The literal or dictionary definition of a word Connotation: The attitudes and feelings associated with a word… the emotional implications toward a word. Definitions
Diction • Diction is the manner in which we express words; the wording used. • Diction = enunciation • Some easy examples are: • Don’t say ‘goin’ – say ‘going’, • Don’t say ‘wanna’ – say ‘want to’
Drama • Literature in which plot and characters are developed through dialogue or action. • 3 main types: • Comedy • Tragedy • Comedy of Manners
Fiction vs. Nonfiction • Fiction: A work of prose that has imaginary elements (ex: short story, novel) • Non-fiction: A work that deals with real people, place, and events (ex:biography, essay, newspapers).
Flashback • A conversation or event that happened before the story began. • Usually, it will interrupt the chronological flow of the story to give the reader additional information.
Foreshadowing • A writer’s use of hints or clues that indicate events/ situations that will occur later in the story. • It creates suspense while preparing the reader for what will happen.
Imagery • Words that describe sights, sounds, and, movements • They recreate sensory experience
Irony • A special kind of contrast between appearance and reality..usually reality is the opposite from what it seems. • Three types: • Situational • Dramatic • Verbal
MOOD • The feeling or atmosphere that the author creates for the reader.
MORAL • A practical lesson regarding what is right and what is wrong. • The distinction between what is right and what is wrong.
Oxymoron • Two words used together that contradict each other. • Typically done for dramatic effect • Example: • Victimless Crime • Thunderous Silence
PLOT • The sequence of events in a story or play.
PLOTLINE Climax Rising Action Falling Action Resolution Exposition Conflict Introduced
Plot: Exposition The Exposition is the introduction. It is the part of the work that introduces the characters, setting, and basic situation.
Plot: Rising Action Rising Action is the part of the plot that begins to occur as soon as the conflict is introduced. The rising action adds complications to the conflict and increases reader interest.
Plot: Climax • The Climax is the point of greatest emotional intensity, interest, or suspense in the plot of a narrative. • The climax typically comes at the turning point in a story or drama.
Plot: Falling Action/ Denouement • the action that typically follows the climax and reveals its results.
Point of View • First person-the narrator is a character in the story (I, me) • Third person- the story is told by a narrative voice outside the story (he, she) • Omniscient-all knowing…narrator sees into the minds of all the characters. • Limited- narrator tells only what 1 character feels, thinks, and observes.
Pun • A play on words • Example: I'm reading a book about anti-gravity. It's impossible to put down.
Satire • A work that makes fun of something or someone. Ex:The SimpsonsSouth Park
Setting • The time and place of a literary work.
Suspense • a state or condition of mental uncertainty or excitement… usually accompanied by a degree of apprehension or anxiety. • Two factors cause this: • the reader's identification with and concern for the welfare of a convincing and sympathetic character • an anticipation of violence.
Style Style is the distinctive way in which an author uses language. Word choice, phrasing, sentence length, tone, dialogue, purpose, and attitude toward the audience and subject can all contribute to an author’s writing style.
Symbol • A symbol is a person, place, activity, or object that stands for something else.
THEME • A theme is a broad idea, message, or moral of a story. It is a “lesson learned”. • The message may be about life, society, or human nature. • It is NEVER specific to the characters.
Tone • The attitude a writer takes toward a subject. • The feelings of the writer.
Tragedy • A dramatic work that presents the downfall of a dignified character or characters. • Usually it involves a decision that was caused by an error in judgment. • Tragic flaw
Turning Point • The turning point in a story, text, or movie occurs when the character’s/author’s attitude or situation changes. • It often occurs right after the climax and right before the resolution.