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A portable readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA). 3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain. Ricardo Marco-Hernández. IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 1.

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a portable readout system for microstrip silicon sensors alibava

A portable readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 1

A portable readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

Bernabeu, J.a, Casse, G.b, García, C.a, Greenall, A.b, Lacasta, C.a, Lozano, M.c, Marco-Hernández, R.a, Martí i García, S.a, Martinez, R.bMiñano, M.a, Pellegrini, G.c, Smith, N. A.b, Ullán, M.c

a Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), Universidad de Valencia-CSIC,Valencia, Spain.

b Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

c Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain

outline

A portable readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 2

Outline
  • Motivations.
  • System requirements.
  • System architecture.
  • Daughter board:
    • Block diagram.
    • Beetle chip.
    • Fan-ins.
  • Mother board:
    • Block diagram.
    • FPGA logic.
    • System operation.
  • PC software characteristics.
  • Calibration measurements.
  • Measurements with laser setup.
  • Measurements with β source.
  • Conclusions and outlook.
motivations

A portable readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 3

Motivations
  • Study the main properties of highly irradiated microstrip silicon sensors: SLHC.
  • Particularly the collected charge: detector performance.
  • Difficulty for obtaining this type of measurements:
    • Required equipment is expensive.
    • A large number of channels has to be measured.
    • There is minimum standardization.
  • Testing with an electronic system as similar as possible to those used at LHC experiments: a LHC front end readout chip should be used.
  • Analogue readout is preferred for accurate pulse shape reconstruction.
system requirements

A portable readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 4

System requirements
  • A compact and portable system.
  • The system will be used with two different laboratory setups:
    • Radioactive source: external trigger input from one or two photomultipliers. Alternatively a digital trigger input as well (from an external discriminator).
    • Laser system: synchronized trigger output generated internally for pulsing an external excitation source.
  • The system should contain two front-end readout chips (Beetle chip used in LHCb) to acquire the detector signals.
  • USB communication with a PC which will store and will process the data acquired.
  • System control from a PC software application in communication with a FPGA which will interpret and will execute the orders.
  • Own supply system from AC mains.
system requirements1

A portable readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 5

System requirements
  • A compact and portable system.
  • The system will be used with two different laboratory setups:
    • Radioactive source: external trigger input from one or two photomultipliers
    • Laser system: synchronized trigger output generated internally for pulsing an external excitation source.
  • The system should contain two front-end readout chips (Beetle chip used in LHCb) to acquire the detector signals.
  • USB communication with a PC which will store and will process the data acquired.
  • System control from a PC software application in communication with a FPGA which will interpret and will execute the orders.
  • Own supply system from AC mains.

The main goal is reconstructing the analogue pulse shape from the readout chip front-end with the highest fidelity from the acquired data.

system architecture

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 6

System architecture
  • Two main parts: software part (PC) and hardware part.
  • Hardware part: a dual board based system.
    • Mother board intended:
      • To process the analogue data that comes from the readout chips.
      • To process the trigger input signal in case of radioactive source setup or to generate a trigger signal if a laser setup is used.
      • To control the hardware part.
      • To communicate with a PC via USB.
    • Daughter board :
      • It will be a small board.
      • It will contain two Beetle readout chips
      • It will have fan-ins and detector support to interface the sensors.
  • Software part:
    • It will control the whole system (configuration, calibration and acquisition).
    • It will generate an output file for further data processing.
daughter board block diagram

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 7

Daughter board: block diagram
  • Two Beetle readout chips in parallel mode (256 input channels).
  • A buffer stage for each analogue output of the Beetle chips:
    • Differential current to differential voltage buffer (AD8132) implemented.
    • Buffered signals are sent to the mother board with impedance matched.
  • Fast control (LVDS signals) and slow control (I2C bus) shared by Beetle chips.
  • A thermistor (NTC) for sensing the temperature close to the Beetle chips.
  • Low voltage DC level (5 V) for Beetle chips (2.5 V) and buffer stage power supply (3 V).
  • High voltage DC level for silicon detector(s) bias through a power lemo connector.
  • Fan-ins and detector board.
daughter board beetle chip

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 8

Daughter board: Beetle chip
  • Readout chip developed at ASIC laboratory of the University of Heildelberg.
  • Front-end output signal: signal that will be reconstructed from analogue readout onto one port.
  • This signal is sampled into the analogue pipeline (128x187 cells) with the frequency of the Beetle chip clock (40 MHz).
  • Vp = kQ. Tp ~ 25 ns. Total pulse length about 65-70 ns.
  • The analogue pipeline programmable latency fixed to 128 CLK cycles (3.2 µs).
  • The TRIGGER signal will have to be active 128 CLK cycles (3.2 µs) after a particular front-end signal point of interest has been sampled.
daughter board beetle chip output format

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 9

Daughter board: Beetle chip output format
  • Analogue output format: single readout onto one output port.
  • Readout: 16 bits header + 128 analogue multiplexed channels.
  • Channel width of 25 ns (40 MHz clock).
  • DataValid signal for readout detection.
  • Output dynamic range: linear up to ~ ±110000 e-.
daughter board detector support

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 10

Daughter board: detector support
  • Fan-ins:
    • Three fan-ins: chip fan-in, intermediate fan-in and detector fan-in.
    • Each fan-in has pads of 80 um pitch not staggered and 10 rows for multiple wire bonding.
  • Text-box:
    • Daughter board and detector boards are fixed to base plate for facilitating wire-bonding.
  • Two flavours of detector board exist:
    • Small, for 1cm2 sensors (board dimensions ~37mm x 32mm).
    • Large, for 1cm x 3cm sensors (board dimensions ~37mm x 50mm).
mother board block diagram

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 11

Mother board: block diagram
  • Signal conditioning block transforms the differential voltage analogue input signal from each Beetle to:
    • Drive an oscilloscope: single ended signal.
    • Drive ADC: differential input shifted signal.
  • ADC (one for each Beetle):
    • 10 bit flash type with a sample rate of 40 MHz (MAX1448).
    • Nominal resolution of 1 mV (output signed code, 9 bits plus 1 sign bit).
    • Dynamic range will be ±512 mV.
mother board block diagram1

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 12

Mother board: block diagram
  • In case of radioactive source setup for obtaining a time stamp of each trigger.
  • Trigger conditioning:
    • Leading-edge discrimination for two photomultiplier analogue input signals.
    • Level conversion for an auxiliary signal (current or voltage).
    • Two dual LVPECL high speed comparators (MAX9601).
    • Four programmable voltage thresholds: generated with a quad 12 bits DAC (DAC7614).
  • TDC: measurement of t between input trigger and a periodic reference signal (100 ns).
    • A TDC integrated circuit (TDC-GP1).
    • Nominal resolution: 600 ps.
    • 100 ns dynamic range.
mother board block diagram2

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Programmable delay

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 13

Mother board: block diagram
  • In case of laser setup.
  • A synchronised output trigger signal (TRIG OUT) will be generated to drive a laser source to reconstruct the Beetle front-end pulse shape.
  • Programmable delay circuit (3D7428):
    • Resolution: 1 ns.
    • Range: up to 255 ns.
    • Programmed by FPGA by serial interface.
  • Following this block a 50 Ω driver will be incorporated for driving a pulse generator input.
mother board block diagram3

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 14

Mother board: block diagram
  • SDRAM (256 Mb): for acquisition data storage.
  • TEMPERATURE CONVERTER: NTC thermistor signal digitalization.
  • SLOW CONTROL: generated directly by the FPGA. External pull-up resistors for SDA and SCL lines.
  • FAST CONTROL:
    • LVDS driver (DS90LV47A) and LVDS receiver (DS90LV48A).
    • Six CM noise suppressor chokes (23Z105SM).
  • USB: USB controller (FT245R) for USB to FIFO parallel (8 bits) bidirectional data transfer.
  • SUPPLY SYSTEM:
    • DC input (5V) from AC adapter.
    • Digital levels from 2 DC-DC converter (1.2 V and 3.3 V) + 1 linear regulator (2.5 V).
    • Analogue levels from DC-DC converter (±5V) + 1 linear regulator (3.3V).
    • Daughter board level from DC-DC converter (5V).
mother board fpga logic

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 15

Mother board: FPGA logic
  • FPGA hardware:
    • Xilinx Spartan-3 (XS3400-PQ208) clocked at 40 MHz.
    • External reset push button.
    • On-system configuration PROM memory.
    • Two LEDs for system status.
  • FPGA logic operation:
    • Custom logic blocks (VHDL) for low level hardware control.
    • Centralized control from a CFSM.
  • FPGA logic blocks:
    • A CFSM (Central Finite State Machine) will control the different blocks depending on the current state of the system.
    • Radioactive source: the DAC CONTROL, TRIGGER IN and TDC CONTROL will be used for processing the trigger inputs and obtaining a time stamp of each trigger.
    • Laser setup: the TRIGGER OUT block will generate the output trigger signal and will control the programmable delay circuit.
mother board fpga logic1

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 16

Mother board: FPGA logic
  • FPGA logic blocks:
    • ADC CONTROL: readout of the digitized data frames when the input DataValid (fast control) signal will be active. This digitized data will be stored in a internal FIFO RAM.
    • BEETLE FAST CONTROL: generation of fast control signals (Clk, Trigger, Testpulse and Reset) depending on the state of the system.
    • BEETLE SLOW CONTROL: I2C master controller for writing/reading the Beetle internal registers (slow control) for configuration.
    • SDRAM CONTROL: implements a controller for interfacing the SDRAM and the CFSM.
    • USB CONTROL: interface between the USB controller and the CFSM.
    • CLOCK GENERATOR: required internal clock and reset signals generation.
mother board fpga logic2

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 17

Mother board: FPGA logic
  • FPGA logic:
    • The CFSM and SDRAM CONTROL have been implemented with an embedded system (soft processor + SDRAM peripheral).
    • Soft processor: Microblaze (32 bits RISC) at 40 MHz.
    • SDRAM controller included as standard peripheral for the Microblaze.
    • ARBITRER : custom block of registers for communication between the embedded processor and the custom logic blocks.
    • FSLs (Fast Simplex Links): unidirectional FIFOs for fast communication between the ARBITRER and the Microblaze.
  • The functionality of the system is programmed as a standard C program in the processor (firmware): great flexibility for changes.
mother board system operation

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 18

Mother board: system operation
  • RESET:
    • System initialization.
    • With a power on, with an external reset or by software reset.
  • WAITING:
    • The system will wait for an order coming from the PC software to go to another state.
  • BEETLE CONFIGURATION:
    • Beetle chips configuration registers programming.
  • CALIBRATION:
    • System calibration by the Beetle internal test pulse generator.
    • Known amplitude readouts will be acquired.
  • TRIGGER IN CONFIGURATION:
    • DAC voltage thresholds will be programmed.
    • Trigger inputs scheme will be configured.
  • LASER SYHRONIZATION:
    • The system will be synchronized for the Beetle front end pulse reconstruction.
    • By delaying the TRIG OUT signal in 1 ns steps.
mother board system operation1

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 19

Mother board: system operation
  • PEDESTALS, RS or LASER ACQUISITION:
    • A programmable number of readouts will be able to be acquired (up to 64776) and stored in the SDRAM.
    • PEDESTALS: For each event a Beetle chips readout (256 by 16 bits) and a temperature readout will be stored in the SDRAM. No charge acquired with Beetle chips.
    • RS: For each event a Beetle chips readout (256 by 16 bits), a TDC readout (32 bits) and a temperature readout will be stored in the SDRAM.
    • LASER: For each event a Beetle chips readout (256 by 16 bits) and a temperature readout (16 bits) will be stored in the SDRAM. The TRIG OUT frequency will be 1 KHz.
  • PEDESTALS, RS or LASER READING:
    • The last type of acquisition will be read from SDRAM and data will be sent to PC by USB.
pc software

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 20

PC software
  • Functions:
    • Control the whole system (configuration, calibration and acquisition).
    • User interface with the system (GUI).
    • Generation of information (output files).
  • Two software levels:
    • Low level for software/mother board communication by USB: VCP (virtual com port) driver (2.4 Mb/s) used.
    • High level: GUI and output file generation for further processing.
  • Programming language: C++
  • Operating system compatibility:
    • Linux version fully operational.
    • Windows beta version.
  • There are also macros for ROOT in order to process the data acquired with the software.
calibration measurements n type detector

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 21

Calibration measurements: n-type detector
  • Data acquired from calibration acquisition.
  • Beetle chip 1 (channels 1-128) without detector.
  • Non-irradiated n-type detector connected to Beetle chip 2 (channels 129-256).
  • First 14 and last 14 channels of Beetle 2 without detector: detector of 100 channels.
  • Some channels does not operate due ‘shorts’ at the bonds: reduced gain.
  • This data is used to calculate the ADC/electrons rate for each channel.
calibration measurements p type detector

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 22

Calibration measurements: p-type detector
  • Data acquired from calibration acquisition.
  • Beetle chip 1 (channels 1-128) without detector.
  • Non-irradiated p-type detector connected to Beetle chip 2 (channels 129-256).
  • This data is used to calculate the ADC/electrons rate for each channel.
measurements with laser setup n type detector

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 23

Measurements with laser setup: n-type detector
  • Data acquired by means of a laser scan.
  • Non-irradiated n-type detector connected to Beetle chip 2 (same conditions as on calibration).
  • Vbias = 200 V (full depletion).
  • Laser light:
    • Wavelength: 1060 nm (near infrared).
    • Laser energy of photons: 1.17 eV.
  • Laser scan:
    • Scan delay range: 1040-1140 ns.
    • Delay step: 1 ns.
    • 100 samples per step.
  • Some channels does not work due to bad bonds.
measurements with laser setup p type detector

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 24

Measurements with laser setup: p-type detector
  • Data acquired by means of a laser scan.
  • Non-irradiated p-type detector connected to Beetle chip 2 (same conditions as on calibration).
  • Vbias = -100 V (full depletion).
  • Laser light:
    • Wavelength: 1060 nm (near infrared).
    • Laser energy of photons: 1.17 eV.
  • Laser scan:
    • Scan delay range: 1040-1160 ns.
    • Delay step: 1 ns.
    • 100 samples per step.
  • All channels work correctly.
measurements with source n type detector

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 25

Measurements with β source: n-type detector
  • Acquisition with β source (90Sr).
  • Non-irradiated n-type detector connected to Beetle chip 2 (same conditions as calibration).
  • Vbias = 200 V (full depletion).
  • Acquisition of ~ 19000 events (triggers):
    • Trigger input from one photomultiplier.
    • Threshold: -40 mV.
  • Some channels are noisy due to bad bonds.
  • Pulse peak charge corresponding ~ 1 mip (24810 e-).
  • Noise: ~ 1200 e-.
  • Common mode variations (σ= 5.88 counts) corrected by software.
  • SNR for peak voltage: ~ 21.
measurements with source p type detector

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 26

Measurements with β source: p-type detector
  • Acquisition with β source (90Sr).
  • Non-irradiated p-type detector connected to Beetle chip 2 (same conditions as calibration).
  • Vbias = -100 V (full depletion).
  • Acquisition of 20000 events (triggers):
    • Trigger input from one photomultiplier.
    • Threshold: -40 mV.
  • All channels working.
  • Pulse peak charge corresponding ~ 1 mip (26940 e-).
  • Noise: ~ 1200 e-.
  • Common mode variations (σ= 8.9 counts) corrected by software.
  • SNR for peak voltage: ~ 22.
conclusions and outlook

A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors (ALIBAVA)

3th Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors, 14-16 April, Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo Marco-Hernández

IFIC(CSIC-Universidad de Valencia) 27

Conclusions and outlook
  • The readout system has been developed and is fully operational.
  • The system can operate with different types and different sizes of microstrip detectors:
    • n-type.
    • p-type.
    • Up to 256 input channels.
    • Two flavours of detector boards to accommodate detectors of different sizes.
  • The system is designed to work with a radioactive source setup and laser setup: useful for comparing results with the same detector.
  • The system has been tested with laser setup and a β source:
    • It works correctly.
    • With p-type and n-type detectors.
    • SNR ~ 20 with non-irradiated detectors: there is room for irradiated detectors.
  • Currently, there is a software Linux version: in the near future, there will be a Windows version for the software (currently debugging a beta version).
  • Data acquired with the system can be easily processed using ROOT framework: some macros already developed.
  • System is ready for production and distribution (motherboards and daughterboards in stock). Production and assembly under demand.
  • Future work: upgrade of the system for testbeam acquisition by synchronizing various ALIBAVAs.