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  1. China Karen Mahaffy MS in Educational Technology

  2. Introduction • United States views China as one of their biggest economic threats. • In order to understand how China achieves their economic dominance, it is essential to learn about how they operate. • Some question the moral compass that guides China’s progression, as there are drastic differences amongst the wealthy and the poor.

  3. Geography • There is a strong separation among cities and villages. • Villages are primitive. • depend on agriculture, yet only 14% of land in Chinais arable. • Cities are modern. • similar to American cities: busy with stores, businesses, people

  4. Population • China is the fourth largest country in the world. • A one-child policy was created in 1978as a way to monitor the rapidly growing population. • Cities are congested with so many people that pollution has become a major issue.

  5. Government • China is a communist nation. • In theory, the idea is that everyone shares everything equally, however the obvious separation between villagers and urbanites makes many question this form of government. • Under communism, allactions of residents and tourists are monitored by the government.

  6. Military • Military presence is heavy at tourist attractions such as Tiananmen Square and the Great Wall of China. • Men and women can serve in the military. • Chinese military is behind the United States military regarding resources such as the aircraft carrier.

  7. Economy • There is great economic disparity. • The rich are extremely rich and the poor are extremely poor. • Often villagers are poor. • Wealthy Chinese live in major cities such as Beijing and Hong Kong.

  8. Health • China has a modern health care system. • There is an alarming trend of malnourished children increasing in villages. • There is also an increasein obesity among school age children in cities.

  9. Transportation • In cities, transportation consists of foot, bike, subway, taxi, bus, train and rarely personal cars. • Villagers rely on bikes and foot. • Personal car use is increasing, and in turn is raising the pollution levels.

  10. Communication • Both landlines and cellular phones are used by many in China. • There are millions of Internet users but all usage is monitored by the government. • The sheer number of users make it difficult to monitor all interaction.

  11. Modern Issues • Human trafficking is a major issue. • People are either taken against their will or coerced into slavery. • The enslaved people must perform manual labor, domestic service, or suffer sexual exploitation.

  12. Educational Projects • Closing the academic achievement gap between rural and urban students. • More than 80% of students in cities attend high school • Less than 30% of students in villages attend high school • 2/3 of China’s school age children live in villages

  13. Educational Projects • Creating equal opportunities for all students. • Surprisingly, there is very little discrimination against women pursuing higher education since China expanded enrollment and established admission guidelines. • The gender imbalance that still exists is more prevalent in villages, where society values educational opportunities for men more than women.

  14. Educational Projects • Developing methods for teacher retention. • Many high school teachers in urban areas are not satisfied with their job, citing low salary, poor benefits, high stress levels among some of the reasons for dissatisfaction.

  15. Educational Projects • Educational funding • In poor villages, educational funding uses too much of the budget and as a result, schools are literally crumbling. • Teachers are underpaid. • Schools are overcrowded and are not properly maintained. • Alarmingly, approximately 40 students are killed as a result of school related accidents every day!

  16. Predictions • Unless the Chinese government provides resources to narrow the gap of underperforming village children to higher performing city children, the economic divide with ensue. • Early childhood educational opportunities are essential to prepare village children to compete with city children.

  17. Predictions • As urbanization continues to grow, the number of village students moving to urban areas increases as well. • Government officials need to look at the rate of which students are migrating and provide funding, resources, etc. so village students can meet the requirements to be successful in the populous nation.

  18. Predictions • China strives to be the leader of the economic world. • China has received praise for producing highly intelligent methodical thinkers. • China has been criticized for not encouraging higher level thinking such as analytical and evaluative skills. • In order to achieve and maintain economic dominance, China is going to have to adjust and accommodate to their inefficiencies.

  19. Bibliography • Renfu, L., Linxiu, Z., Chengfang, L., Qiran, Z., Yaojiang, S., Rozelle, S., & Sharbono, B. (2012). Behind before they begin: The challenge of early childhood education in rural China. Australasian Journal Of Early Childhood, 37(1), 55-64. • Wang, H. (2011). Access to higher education in China: Differences in opportunity. Frontiers Of Education In China, 6(2), 227-247. • Chung, C., & Mason, M. (2012). Why do primary school students drop out in poor, rural China? A portrait sketched in a remote mountain village. International Journal Of Educational Development, 32(4), 537-545. • Divjak, Carol. (2001). China’s public education system in decay. Retrieved from • Carr, Sarah. (2012). What the U.S. and Chinese School systems have in common: Inequality, Segregation. Retrieved from

  20. Bibliography • Li, Z., & Xu, W. (2006). Demand for education in the urbanization process: prediction and analysis. Frontiers Of Education In China, 1(4), 533-548. • Images from: •