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18 Organizational Change and Development . Learning Objectives. Appreciate the forces that lead to organization change and the various impediments to change that arise during the change process

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Appreciate the forces that lead to organization change and the various impediments to change that arise during the change process
  • Distinguish between evolutionary and revolutionary change and identify the main types of each of these kinds of change processes
learning objectives3
Learning Objectives
  • Discuss the main steps involved in action research and identify the main issues that must be addressed to manage the change process effectively
  • Understand the process of organization development and how to use various change techniques to facilitate the change process
  • What is Mulcahy’s approach to change?
organizational change
Organizational Change
  • Organizational change is the movement of an organization away from its present state and toward some desired future state to increase its effectiveness
    • Reengineering
    • TQM
    • Innovation
    • Restructuring
exhibit 18 1a forces for change
Exhibit 18.1a Forces for Change
  • Competitive
  • Economic and political
  • Global
  • Demographic and social
  • Ethical
exhibit 18 1b impediments to change

Group norms

Group cohesiveness

Groupthink/escalation of commitment



Selective perception



Power and conflict

Differences in functional orientation

Mechanistic structure

Organizational culture

Exhibit 18.1b Impediments to Change
lewin s force field theory of change
Lewin’s Force-Field Theory of Change
  • Forces resist change
  • Forces push change
  • Performance levels
    • P1 = Balance
    • P2 = Increase forces for change, reduce forces for change, or both
categories of change
Categories of Change
  • Evolutionary change is change that is gradual, incremental, and narrowly focused
  • Revolutionary change is change that is rapid, dramatic, and broadly focused
instruments of evolutionary change
Instruments of Evolutionary Change


systems theory

Total quality


instruments of revolutionary change
Instruments of Revolutionary Change




action research
Action Research
  • Action research is a strategy for generating and acquiring knowledge that managers can use to define an organization’s desired future state and to plan a change program that allows the organization to reach that state
exhibit 18 4 steps in action research
Exhibit 18.4 Steps in Action Research

1. Diagnosing organization

2. Determining desired state

3. Implementing action

4. Evaluating action

5. Institutionalizing action


implementing action
Implementing Action
  • Identify possible impediments to change
  • Decide who will be responsible
    • External change agents
    • Internal change agents
  • Decide specific change strategy
change agents
Change Agents



types of change

Implemented by managers at a high level in organization

Result of radical restructuring and reengineering

More resistance


Implemented by employees at low levels and rises over time

All levels involved in change process

Less resistance

Types of Change
organizational development
Organizational Development
  • Organizational development is a series of techniques and methods that managers can use in their action research program to increase the adaptability of their organization
od techniques to deal with resistance to change
OD Techniques to Deal with Resistance to Change
  • Education and Communication
  • Participation and Empowerment
  • Facilitation
  • Bargaining and Negotiation
  • Manipulation
  • Coercion
od techniques to promote change
OD Techniques to Promote Change
  • Counseling
  • Sensitivity Training
  • Process Consultation
  • Team Building
  • Intergroup Training
  • Total Organizational Interventions