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Organizational Change. What is Organizational Change?. The process by which organizations move from their present state to some desired future state to increase their effectiveness. Workforce. World Politics. Technology. Forces For Change. Social Trends. Economic Shocks.

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what is organizational change
What is Organizational Change?
  • The process by which organizations move from their present state to some desired future state to increase their effectiveness
slide3

Workforce

World

Politics

Technology

Forces For

Change

Social

Trends

Economic

Shocks

Competition

slide4

General Model of Planned Change

Evaluating

and

Institutiona-

lizing

Entering

and

Contrac-

ting

Planning

and

Implemen-

ting

Diagno-

sing

different types of planned change
Different Types of Planned Change
  • Type of Change
    • Evolutionary
    • Revolutionary
  • Magnitude of Change
    • Incremental
    • Quantum
  • What impact would these different types of changes have on any change initiative?
slide6

Evolutionary

Change

Revolutionary

Change

Gradual

Rapid

Incremental

Dramatic

Narrowly-focused

Broadly-focused

Managing Planned Change

slide7

Evolutionary

Change

Revolutionary

Change

Socio-tech systems

Re-engineering

TQM

Restructuring

Empowered work grps

Innovation

Instruments of Change

slide9

Lewin’s Change Model

Unfreezing -involves encouraging individuals to discard old behaviors by shaking up the equilibrium state that maintains the status quo

Moving -new attitudes, values, and behaviors are substituted for old ones

Refreezing -involves the establishment of new attitudes, values, and behaviors as the new status quo

lewin s force field theory of change
Lewin’s Force-Field Theory of Change
  • Theory of change which argues that two sets of opposing forces within an organization determine how change will take place
    • Forces for change and forces making organizations resistant to change
    • To change an organization, managers must increase forces for change and decrease forces resisting change
slide11

Driving

Forces

Unfreezing the Status Quo

Desired

State

Restraining

Forces

Status

Quo

Time

force field analysis
Force Field Analysis

Driving forces

Resisting forces

High perf. goals

Group norms for output

New equipment

Familiar equipment

Competition

Complacency

Need to learn new skills

Employees with

new skills

Fear of reduced

rewards

Desire for higher rewards

Current level

of group

performance

Desired level

of group

performance

slide13

No

Change

Discontinuous

Change

Sporadic

Change

Continuous

Change

Change & Resistance Forces

Strong

Resistance Forces

Weak

Weak

Strong

Change Forces

resistance to change individual
Resistance to Change - Individual

Selective

Information

Processing

Force of

Habit

Individual

Fear of

the Unknown

Need for

Security

Economic Factors

resistance to change organisation
Resistance to Change-Organisation

Group Inertia

Threat to

Existing

Relationships

Structural

Inertia

Organizational

Threat to

Existing

Allocations

Limited

Focus

of Change

Threat

to Expertise

employee readiness for change
Employee Readiness for Change

Perceived Personal Risk from Change

Low

High

Moderate to

indeterminate

readiness

High

High readiness

Level of Dissatisfaction

with the Current

Situation

Moderate to

indeterminate

readiness

Low readiness

Low

slide17

Overcoming

Resistance to Change

Education and

Communication

Participation

Negotiation

Facilitation

and Support

Manipulation

and Cooptation

Coercion

slide18

Managing Change: It’s Culture Bound!

  • Does culture influence change?
  • Does culture influence resistance?
  • Does culture influence implementation?
  • Does culture influence idea champions / change agents ?
requirements for successfully changing organizational culture
Requirements for Successfully Changing Organizational Culture
  • Understand the old culture first.
  • Support employees and teams who have ideas for a better culture and are willing to act on those ideas.
  • Find the most effective subculture in the organization and use it as a model.
  • Use the vision of a new culture as a guide for change.
  • Recognize that significant cultural change takes time.
  • Live the new culture.
issues to address in changing organizational culture
Issues to Address in ChangingOrganizational Culture
  • Capitalize on dramatic opportunities.
  • Combine caution with optimism.
  • Understand resistance to cultural change.
  • Change many elements, but maintain some continuity.
  • Recognize the importance of implementation.
  • Modify socialization tactics.
  • Find and cultivate innovative leadership.
initiatives contributing to effective change management
Initiatives Contributing to Effective Change Management

Motivating Change

Creating a Vision

Developing Political

Support

Effective Change

Management

Managing the Transition

Sustaining Momentum

change paradigm
Change Paradigm
  • Things that do not change
  • Things that change naturally
  • Things that change constantly
  • Things that need change