Organizational change
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Organizational change. Lecture 12. Organizational change. Substantive modification in some part of the organization; It may include any aspect in the organization: Work schedules; Bases for departmentalization; Span of management; Organizational design; Staff. Forces for change.

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Organizational change

  • Substantive modification in some part of the organization;

  • It may include any aspect in the organization:

  • Work schedules;

  • Bases for departmentalization;

  • Span of management;

  • Organizational design;

  • Staff.

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Forces for change

  • External forces;

  • Internal forces. Internal forces include strategy, structure, staff, goals,technical equipment.

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Types of change

  • There are two main types of a change:

  • Planned change. It is designed and implemented in an orderly and timely fashion in anticipation of future events;

  • Reactive change. It is a respond to circumstances as they develop.

  • Technological changes;

  • Behavioral changes;

  • Innovations.

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Managing change process

  • Managing change means forecasts the change, implementing it in the organization and involving people in it.

  • According to Kurt Lewin, there are three stages in change process:

  • Unfreezing;

  • Implementing;

  • Reinforcing.

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Stages in change process

  • Unfreezing means that people who will be affected by change should understand why change is necessary;

  • Implementation is next stage.

  • Refreezing involves reinforcing and supporting the change.

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Steps in change process

  • Recognition the need for change;

  • Establishment of goals for change;

  • Diagnosis of relevant variables;

  • Selection of appropriate change techniques;

  • Planning for implementation of the change;

  • Actual implementation;

  • Evaluation

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Managing resistance to change

  • People resist to change for several reasons:


  • Threatened self-interests;

  • Different perceptions;

  • Feelings of loss.

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Techniques to overcome resistance

  • Participation. Employees who participate in the planning and implementation of change better understand the reasons for change;

  • Education and communication;

  • Facilitation;

  • Negotiations. This technique is suitable for groups having power in the oranizations;

  • Support. It is connected with training of staff to acquire new skills;

  • Manipulation and involvement.

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Organization development

  • It is an effort that is planned, organization wide, and managed from top, intended to increase organization’s effectiveness through planned actions.

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Prerequisites for organization development

  • Employees have desire to grow and develop;

  • They have strong need to be accepted by others;

  • The way OD is designed will influence the way individuals and group behave in the organization.

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OD techniques

  • Diagnostic activities. It includes analysis of current condition or welfare of the organization;

  • Team building; they enhance the effectiveness and satisfaction of individuals;

  • Survey feedback. Each employee responds to a questionnaire intended to measure perceptions and attitudes.

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OD techniques

  • Education;

  • Intergroup activities. They are designed to promote cooperation;

  • Third- party peace making. It is used in cases of substantial conflict in the organization;

  • Technostructural activities. They include the design of organization, the technology.

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OD techniques

  • Process consultation. In this case OD consultant is observing the groups to understand their communication pattern, decision making and leadership processes and gives feedback.

  • Life and career planning. Employees formulate their personal goals and evaluate strategies for integrating goals with goals in the organization;

  • Coaching and counseling; it helps people to develop better sense of how others see them.