Managing Organizational Change and Development Chapter 18 It’s all about: CHANGE
Organizational Development • Managing change through power • Managing change through reason • Managing change through re-education
Organizational Development • Specific set of change interventions, skills, activities, tools, or techniques that are used to help people and organizations to be more effective. • Unlearn old behaviors and learn new ones • What is the difference between adaptive change, innovative change and radically innovative change?
Organizational Development • Why do change efforts fail? • Failure to establish a sense of urgency about the need for change • Failure to create a guiding coalition that is responsible for leading and managing the change process • Failure to establish a vision that guides change process • Failure to effectively communicate new vision • Failure to remove obstacles that prevent implementation of vision • Failure to plan for and create short-term wins • Declaration of victory too soon. • Failure to anchor change to the organizational culture
Learning Principles • Unfreeze old learning – requires people who want to learn new ways to think and act. Deals with resistance to change. Some people accept the need for change and are receptive to experiences that will aid them in developing new skills. Others reject the need – or play it down. Must determine where employees are: Active resistance Passive resistance Indifference Acceptance
Learning Principles • Movement to new learning – requires training, demonstration, and empowerment. • Refreezing the learned behavior – occurs through the application of reinforcement and feedback. Easier to achieve successful change through the use of positive rewards.
Change Agents • Brings a different perspective to the situation and challenges the status quo. The success of any change programs depends on the quality of the relationship between the change agent and key decision-makers. • External – consultants • Internal – recently appointed manager with the expectation that major change is necessary.
Managing OD • See figure 18.1 • Forces for change continually act on the organization. • Need to know when change is needed and when it is not • Monitoring and evaluation requires feedback – respond to the implementation as well as the forces for change • What are the factors that influence each aspect of the model? Be able to discuss these items • Why are ethics important in organizational development?