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Module Seven ALCOHOL & SUBSTANCES ABUSE . Lesson 1 : Alcohol (2 training hours ) Lesson 2: Other substances (2 training hours ) Lesson 3: Social issues (2 training hours ). Lesson 1. ALCOHOL . Step 1 : Discussion.

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module seven alcohol substances abuse
Module SevenALCOHOL & SUBSTANCES ABUSE
  • Lesson 1: Alcohol (2 training hours)
  • Lesson2: Other substances (2 training hours)
  • Lesson 3: Social issues (2 training hours)
lesson 1
Lesson 1

ALCOHOL

step 1 discussion
Step 1: Discussion

Alcohol is the most popular toxic substance to man. Most of us use it for pleasure, but in some cases alcohol drinking might end to be a serious problem.

What is the secure alcohol consumption ?

Specialized organizations have determined that The limit of safe consumption is 21 units per week for men and 14 for women. One unit corresponds to half a pint of beer, a glass of wine or a 40gr of whiskey/vodka/liquer.

step 2 slide projection
Step 2: Slide projection

Slide 7.1.1: Some terms

Exceeding alcohol consumption

The regular consumption on daily or weekly basis that exceeds the recommended limit.

step 2 continued
Step 2 (continued)

Disorder caused by alcohol

Any psychological, physical or social damage that derives from exceeding consumption.

step 2 continued6
Step 2 (continued)

Problematic alcohol consumption

Consumption that causes any disorders that can derive from alcohol drinking, but has not yet caused dependence on it.

step 2 continued7
Step 2 (continued)

Dependence on alcohol

A situation in which physical and mental disorders develop, when alcohol use is stopped.

step 2 continued8
Step 2 (continued)

Toxicosis

Is the intoxication, that is the situation that follows when alcohol levels in the blood exceed a certain limit.

step 3
Step 3

Slide 7.1.2: Characteristics of the dependence in alcohol

Withdrawal syndrome

  • Trembling hands, tongue and eyelids
  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  • Intense heart beat, perspiration, high blood pressure
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Irritability, excitement, anxiety, insomnia
  • Temporary hallucinations or delusions
step 3 continued
Step 3 (continued)

Tolerance

Need for increasing quantity to achieve the same outcome

Furthermore :

  • Pressurizing need to drink
  • Standard manner of drinking regularly
  • Priority to drinking than to other activities
  • Failures to quit
step 4 slide projection
Step 4: Slide projection

Slide 7.1.3: Damages from alcohol abuse

Physical

It can be an immediate effect of alcohol drinking, or an indirect effect from malnutrition (lack of vitamins), accidents and general neglecting of oneself.

  • Gastric ulcer, hepatic damage
  • Brain damage (and dementia)
  • Peripheral neuritis with loss of sensing
  • Anemia, heart failure
  • In women that abuse alcohol during pregnancy, the infant might have low weight and other abnormalities.
step 5 continued
Step 5 (continued)

Psychiatric

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Aggression
  • High possibility of committing suicide
  • Psychosis with delusions or jealousy ideation

Social

  • Family problems (quarrels, violence, divorce)
  • Professional problems
  • Illegal actions
  • Accidents (car accidents or others)
step 5 theory presentation
Step 5: Theory presentation

It is essential to recognize persons that abuse alcohol, as they tend not to reveal their alcohol problems.

The therapy is recommended to:

  • Treatment of withdrawal syndrome
  • Psychotherapies :
    • Recognizing and admitting the problem
    • Try to quit drinking habit
    • Keeping up the effort when it starts to give results
  • The existence of support groups (like Alcoholic Anonymous) has been proved efficient.
lesson 2
Lesson2

OTHER SUBSTANCES

step 1 introduction
Step 1: Introduction

The issue of other substances must be examined in a similar way to alcohol. The most extreme effects and problems are related to the dependence on these substances. There are of course a lot of addictive substances and the problems and dangers differs from one to another.

step 2 brainstorming
Step 2: Brainstorming

Which substances have you encountered in your practice?

  • Opiates, f. ex. Heroine, morphine
  • Stimulants, f ex amphetamines, ecstasy, cocaine
  • Hallucinogens, f ex. LSD
  • Drugs, f ex benzodiazepines, barbiturates
  • Solutions, f ex glue and aerosol
  • Cannabis
  • Nicotine
  • Caffeine
step 3 slide projection
Step 3: Slide projection

Slide 7.2.1: Characteristics of the most common substances

Opiates (heroine, morphine)

WAY OF TAKING :ingestion, intramuscularly,intravenously,subcutaneously

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT: euphoria, relaxation, dizziness, personality change, hypo activity, loss of appetite, low libido

PHYSICAL EFFECT: constricted pupils (pinpoint), low heart rate, itching, nausea, constipation

WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME : intense desire for the substance, uneasiness, rapid heart rate, dilated pupils, sweating/perspiration, yawning, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dehydrated skin

DEPENDENCE: YES

step 4 continued
Step 4 (continued)

Cocaine

WAY OF TAKING: chewing, inhale through nose, smoking, intravenous injection

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT: Euphoria, enthusiasm, Confusion, Paranoid psychosis

PHYSICAL EFFECT: dilated pupils(constricted pupils (pinpoint)), fear, increase heart rate,, runny nose (rhinorrhea), fever, heart respiratory attack

WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME : intense desire for the substance, depression, insomnia, agitation.

DEPENDENCE: YES

step 3 continued20
Step 3 (continued)

Amphetamines

WAY OF TAKING: ingestion, intravenous injection

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT: Euphoria, enthusiasm, hyperactivity, irritability, hostility, Paranoid ideation, Delusions

PHYSICAL EFFECT: constricted pupils, increase heart rate, increase of reflexes

WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME : sadness, unemployment

DEPENDENCE: YES

step 3 continued21
Step 3 (continued)

Hallucinogens (LSD)

WAY OF TAKING: ingestion

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT: Depersonalization, Deobjectivation, Overestimation of abilities, Anxiety, Effect ideas, low judgment ability, Psychotic characteristics, Mood swings

PHYSICAL EFFECT: red eyes, constricted pupils, ataxia, increased heart rate

WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME : None

DEPENDENCE: NO

step 3 continued22
Step 3 (continued)

Cannabis (hashish, marijuana)

WAY OF TAKING : smoking

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT: euphoria, relaxation, acute perception

PHYSICAL EFFECT: red eyes, dry mouth, increased heart rate, respiratory problems

WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME : none

DEPENDENCE: YES

step 3 continued23
Step 3 (continued)

Barbiturates

WAY OF TAKING: ingestion

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT: Anxiety reduce

PHYSICAL EFFECT: Repression of respiratory system, Repression of Central Nervous System

WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME : Uneasiness, Insomnia, Nausea, Spasms, Delirium

DEPENDENCE: YES

step 3 continued24
Step 3 (continued)

Benzodiazepines

WAY OF TAKING: Intramuscularly, intravenously, ingesting

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT: Anxiety reduce, Disturbances in concentration, judgment, memory

PHYSICAL EFFECT: ataxia, Nausea, CNS repression

WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME : Uneasiness, Insomnia, Fear

DEPENDENCE: YES

step 3 continued25
Step 3 (continued)

Ecstasy

WAY OF TAKING: ingestion

PSYCHOLOCICAL EFFECT: Euphoria, increased perceptions, Anxiety, Psychotic characteristics

PHYSICAL EFFECT: anorexia, increased heart rate, jaw tension, sweating, High temperature , blood vessel thrombosis

WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME : None

DEPENDENCE: NO / YES

step 3 continued26
Step 3 (continued)

Solutions (glues, aerosol)

WAY OF TAKING: inhaling

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT: Euphoria followed by apathy, rejection of Inhibitions, poor judgment

PHYSICAL EFFECT: : Sore eyes, sore throat, rushes breathing difficulty,CNS repression, ataxia,sleepiness, peripheral neuropathy, multiple kidney failure, arrhythmias, liverandkidney damage, kidney damage, aplastic anaemia

WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME: None

DEPENDENCE: RARE

step 4 slide projection27
Step 4: Slide projection

Slide 7.2.2: Treatment of substance use

Pharmacotherapies:

(Methadone, Naltrexone, Klonidine, etc )

Psychotherapies. Have as a target to:

  • Intervene in possible psychological, social, environmental factors that persist.
  • Increase person’s awareness.
  • Develop alternative mechanisms of treating the problems.
  • Inform for the strategies of treatment of intense desire for substance use.