What is a modifier? • Adjective or Adverb? • Good and Well • Comparison of Modifiers • Regular comparison • Irregular comparison • Use of comparative and superlative forms • The Double Negative • Placement of Modifiers • Prepositional phrases • Participial phrases • Adjective clauses Using Modifiers Correctly
What is a Modifier? • Modifier: a word or word group that makes the meaning of another word more specific • Two parts of speech: Adverbs and adjectives • Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns • Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs Examples: ADJ: You sang a beautiful song. ADV: You sang beautifully.
Adjective or adverb? • Many adverbs (but not all) end in –ly • Some adjectives do, too • To decide which is which, look at how it is used in a sentence
Examples: That performance was powerful. powerful follows the linker was, and it describes the subject performance The ground looks muddy. muddy follows the linker looks, and it describes the subject ground.
Exercise 1, p. 239 • Use your boards • Decide whether the italicized modifier in each sentence is and adjective or an adverb. Ex: They had been best friends since pre-school. A: adj: best modifies the noun friends. #1: Does Mike’s flight leave early? A: adv: early modifies the verb leave.
Good and Well • Good is an adjective. Use it to modify nouns and pronouns but notverbs. • Well is an adverb. Use it to modify verbs. Don’t use good to modify a verb: NO: Paula doesgood in all her subjects. YES: Paula doeswell in all her subjects.
Good and Well So is it “I am good” or is it “I am well”? Grammar snobs tend to say “I am well” only! Truth is, both are correct. “I am good” means you’re generally happy. “I am well” means you’re in good health.
Exercise 2, p. 241 • Use your boards • Choose good or well for each sentence Ex: We danced ________ at the recital. A: well #1: Melba did not run as ______ during the second race. A: well
Comparison of Modifiers • Adjectives and adverbs make comparisons in different forms that depend on the word they happen to be modifying Adjectives: • Hulk Hogan is tall. (no comparison) • The Big Show is taller. (comparison with only one other thing) • Andre the Giant is the tallest of them all. (one thing compared with many others)
Adverbs: • Wrestlers appear in movies frequently. (no comparison) • John Cena appears in movies more frequently than The Big Show. (one compared with another) • Of all the wrestlers I can think of, The Rock appears in movies most frequently. (one compared to many)
Degrees of comparison • There are three degrees of comparison • Positive • Comparative • Superlative
Regular comparison • Most one-syllable modifiers form the comparative degree by adding –er • Most form the superlative by adding –est
Regular comparison • Two-syllable modifiers form the comparative degree by adding –eror using more. • They form the superlative by adding –estor using most.
Regular comparison • Three or more-syllable modifiers form the comparative degree by using more. • They form the superlative by using most.
Regular comparison • To show a decrease in qualities, modifiers form the comparative degree by using less • They form the superlative by using least
Irregular comparison • Some comparatives and superlatives are not formed in the usual way
Review A, p. 245 • Use a blank piece of lined paper (partner A) • Give the comparative and superlative forms of the words in your list • Every word should have four entries Ex: wasteful A: more wasteful, less wasteful; most wasteful, least wasteful Ex: young A: younger, less young; youngest, least young
Use of Comparative and Superlative forms • Use the comparative degree when comparing two things • Use the superlative degree when comparing more than two Comparative: • Android phones tend to be larger than Apple phones. • I find my Android to be more customizable than an iPhone. • Of the two phones, my Android was cheaper than her iPhone. Superlative: • The iPhone is the most popular brand of smartphone. • The Apple store is the busiest store in Victoria Gardens. • The new iOS icons are the most colorful icons we’ve seen yet.
Avoid the common mistake of using the superlative degree to compare only two things NO: Of the two phones, my HTC DNA is the best one. YES: Of the two phones, my HTC DNA is the betterone. NO: iOS is the fastest of the two operating systems. YES: iOS is the faster of the two operating systems.
Include the word other or else when comparing one member of a group with the rest of the group. NO: The iPhone 5s is more expensive than any phone Apple sells. YES: The iPhone 5s is more expensive than any other phone Apple sells. NO: She can text faster than anyone in the class. YES: She can text faster than anyone else in the class.
Avoid using double comparisons • Double comparisons occur when you use –er and more or –est and most to form a degree of comparison • Use only one of these ways, not both NO: My iPhone is more smaller than your Droid. YES: My iPhone is smaller than your Droid. NO: That is the most beautifulestscreen I’ve ever seen! YES: That is the most beautiful screen I’ve ever seen!
Review C, p. 248 • Use a blank piece of lined paper (partner B) • Revise each incorrect sentence • If a sentence is correct, write C. There are two in this exercise. Ex: It’s the most ugliest phone in the world! A: It’s the ugliest phone in the world! Ex: Which of these three phones is the more expensive? A: Which of these three phones is the most expensive?
The Double Negative • Avoid using double negatives! Examples: We don’t need no education. We don’t need no thought control.
Fix it! • We don’t have no extra chairs. • We don’t have any extra chairs. • We have no extra chairs. • He couldn’t hardly talk. • He could hardly talk.
Classwork: LH 57 and 58 • Complete both sides of the worksheet • Partner A does odds/ B evens • As always, discuss all answers before committing
Placement of Modifiers • Where you place a modifier can have a major impact on the meaning of your words. • Examples: • The jedifrom Tatooinegave a televised lecture on famous Sith Lords. • The jedi gave a televised lecture on famous Sith Lords from Tatooine. • The jedi gave a televised lecture from Tatooineon famous Sith Lords.
Place modifiers as near as possible to the words they modify. • Modifiers that seem to be in the wrong place are called misplaced modifiers. Misplaced: My aunt Padme has almost seen all of the Star Wars movies. Correct: My aunt Padme has seen almost all of the Star Wars movies.
A modifier that doesn’t clearly modify another word/word group in a sentence is called a dangling modifier. Examples: With a dangling modifier: Having left the message with the droid, it was easier to let Ben know he was her only hope. Corrected: Having left the message with the droid, Leia found it easier to let Ben know he was her only hope.
Exercise 7, p. 252 • Use a blank piece of lined paper (partner A) • Revise each incorrect sentence. The wrong stuff is in italics. • There are no sentences that are correct as written. • There can be many ways to correct these sentences. Ex: Surprised, the planet was only fifty parsecs away! A: I was surprised that the planet was only fifty parsecs away!
Prepositional phrases • Prepositional phrases contain prepositions, nouns or pronouns called objects, and any modifiers of the objects • When using prep. phrases as adjectives, generally place them right after the word they modify Misplaced: The play describes Hamlet’s struggle with his step-father by William Shakespeare. Correct: The play by William Shakespeare describes Hamlet’s struggle with his step-father.
Prepositional phrases used as adverbs should be placed near the words they modify Misplaced: Spanish explorers discovered gold along the river that runs near my house during the 1500s. Better: During the 1500s, Spanish explorers discovered gold along the river that runs near my house. Better: Spanish explorers discovered gold during the 1500s along the river that runs near my house.
Avoid placing prepositional phrases in positions where they can modify more than one word. Misplaced: Emily said before sunset it might get colder. Better: Emily said it might get colder before sunset. Better: Before sunset, Emily said it might get colder.
Exercise 8, p. 253 • Use a blank piece of lined paper (partner B) • Revise each incorrect sentence. • There are no sentences that are correct as written. • Do 1-6 only . A evens, B odds. Ex: I read that a satellite was launched in the news today. A: I read in the news today that a satellite was launched.
Review: Participial phrases • Participles: verbs used as adjectives • The screaming bandit waved his pistol. • Present participles end in –ing • Most past participles end in –d or –ed • Participial phrases contain participles and their modifiers or compliments • Seeing himself in the mirror, the bandit seemed confused. • Then, disgusted with the man in the mirror, the bandit fired his pistol.
Review: Compliments (ch. 4) • Compliments complete the meaning of verbs • They include: • Direct objects • Indirect objects • These complete the meaning of action verbs • Predicate nominatives • Predicate adjectives • These complete the meaning of linking verbs
Participial phrases • Participial phrases contain verb forms, either present or past participles, and any modifiers or compliments the participles have. • Participial phrases modify nouns or pronouns • Like prep. phrases, they should be placed as close as possible to the word they modify Misplaced: Bandits chased the stagecoach yelling wildly. Correct: Yelling wildly, bandits chased the stagecoach.
Misplaced: The bank vault door was lying on the floor broken into several pieces. Correct: The bank vault door, broken into several pieces, was lying on the floor.
To correct a dangling participial phrase: • Supply a word for the phrase to modify • Change it to a clause (subject +verb) Dangling: Running through the desert, the horseshoe fell off. Correct: Running through the desert, the horse lost its shoe. Correct: The horse lost its shoe while it was running through the desert.
Dangling: Riding the fastest horse in the west, catching the stagecoach was no problem. Correct: Riding the fastest horse in the west, Woody had no problem catching the stagecoach. Correct: Because he was riding the fastest horse in the west, Woody had no problem catching the stagecoach.
Exercise 9, p. 255 • Use a blank piece of lined paper (partner A) • Revise each incorrect sentence. • There are no sentences that are correct as written among the ones you must do. • There are many ways to correctly fix each sentence. Try to change it as little as possible. • Do 1-6 only . A evens, B odds. Ex: Dressed in our cowboy costumes, the police officer waved and smiled. A: Seeing us in our cowboy costumes, the police officer waved and smiled. A: Dressed in our cowboy costumes, we saw the police officer smile and wave.
Adjective clauses • Adjective clauses are subordinate clauses that modify nouns or pronouns • Most begin with a relative pronoun such as: • That • Which • Who • Whom • Whose Like adjective phrases, these should be placed right after the word they modify
Misplaced: The book was about insects that we read. Correct: The book that we read was about insects. Misplaced: A boy walked up to Jenny who was lost. Correct: A little boy who was lost walked up to Jenny. Misplaced: His parents traded an old dvd player for a new blu-ray player, which they no longer wanted. Correct: His parents traded an old dvd player which they no longer wanted for a new blu-rayplayer.
Review F, p. 257 • Use a blank piece of lined paper (partner B) • You and your partner will revise the paragraph on page 257. • Partner A will complete all odd sentences; B will do evens. • 5 points of classwork credit will be available in grammar today: • Both names on the paper. Seriously. • Formatted as a list, not as a paragraph. Number your paper 1-10. • Accurately identify the two correctly written sentences. Your answer to these will be C. • The assignment is complete. 8 correctly revised sentences and two identified as correct. • Corrections made based on discussion. Fix what needs to be fixed.