Chapter 6 Using Pronouns Correctly
Overview • Case • Nominative • Objective • Possessive • Special problems • Appositives • Elliptical constructions • Reflexive and Intensive • Who and whom
Diagnostic PreviewPage 122 • Number your paper 1 – 10 and complete Diagnostic Preview – A. Proofreading Sentences for Correct Pronoun Forms.
Answers • She should be Her • Correct • Him should be He • Her should be She • Us should be We • Who should be Whom • Myslef should be I • Correct • You should be Your • Whom should be who
Case Nom nom nominative case. • Caseis the form of a noun or pronoun that shows how it is used in a sentence. • The grammatical role a noun or pronoun plays in a sentence • Nominative (subjective) Case • Personal pronouns used as subjects and as predicate nominatives (pg 125) • Objective Case • Personal pronouns used as direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions (pg 128) • Possessive Case • Personal pronouns used to show ownership or possession (pg 131)
The Rules • Use the nominative case to show the subject of a verb • (She, Her) explained the strategy • She is the subject of the verb explained • I know of no other person in the company who is as smarmy as (he, him) • He is the subject of the understood verb is
Exception Rule 1 • A pronoun used as the subject of an infinitive is in the objective case: • Billy Bob expects Frankie Bob and (I, me) to make squirrel stew. • Me, since it is the subject of the infinitive to make Squirrel!
HINT • Mentally supply the missing verb. • Herbert knows the material better than (he/him) • Supplying the missing verb does tells you the correct pronoun is he.
Rules 2. A pronoun used as a predicate nominative is in the nominative case • A predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun after some form of to be (is, was, might have been, and so on). • The verb to be – in all its forms, is the same as an equal sign • It was (they, them) who first suggested getting the 90 pound puppy • It was they who first suggested getting the 90 pound puppy
Let’s practice • Complete Exercise 1: Using Pronouns in the Nominative Case
Answers • They – P.N. • They – subject • They – subject • They – subject • He – subject • He – predicate nominative • They – P.N. • She – subject / they – subject • They – subject • She – subject / he - subject
Rules 3. Use the objective case to show that the noun or pronoun receives the action • (Who, Whom) can you send to help us? • Whom is the direct object of the verb can send. • The taxidermist promised to notify Herman and (I, me) of this plans for the moose. • Me (together with Herman) is the object of the infinitive to notify Um, please just send the guy on the left.
Rules 4. A pronoun used in an appositive with a noun is in the same case as the noun. • Appositive is a noun or pronoun placed after another noun or pronoun to identify, explain, or rename • The bond traders, Alice and (she, her) were given bonuses large enough to buy their own banana republic • The pronoun must be in the nominative case (she) because it is in apposition with the noun bond traders.
Rules 5. Use the possessive case to show ownership • The manager refused to acknowledge that the memo was (her’s / hers) • Hers is the correct spelling of the possive case, which is needed to express ownership • The boss disapproves of (me, my) leaving the office early • The meaning of the sentence requires the possessive case: my. • Be careful not to confuse possessive pronouns and contractions.
Rules 6. Use the subjective case after linking verbs Think about it: because a pronoun coming after a linking verb renames the subject, the pronoun must be in the subjective (nominative) case • The flasher of the month was (I, me) • Use I since the pronoun renames the subject, flasher of the month.
Rules 7. Use –self forms correctly with reflexive or intensive situation Reflexive pronouns reflect back to the subject or object • The superhero embarrassed himself • Unfortunately, he had to rely on himself to save the day. • Don’t use reflexive pronouns in place of subjects and objects • The diner and (myself, I) had a chat. • The diner and I had a chat • Intensive pronouns provide emphasis • The superhero felt that his reputation itself was at stake.
Special Problems • Appositives (non-essential information – pg 132) • A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same case as the word which it refers • A pronoun following than or as in an elliptical construction is in the same case as it would be if the construction were completed (pg 134) • Reflexive and Intensive pronoun (pg 135)
Let’s practice • Complete Exercise 2: Using Pronouns in the Objective Case on page 129
Answers • Them – indirect object • Her – i.o. • Him – i.o. • Me – direct object • Him – d.o. / me – d.o. • Him – i.o. • Him – i.o. • Her – i.o. • Him – d.o. • Them – d.o.
Special problems • Who and Whom (pg 137) • 3 rules • Use who or whoever when the pronoun is the subject of a verb • Who said, “Mr. Kelly is like Banquo” • Use who or whoever when the pronoun is the predicate nominative • The winner was who? • Use whom or whomever when the pronoun is the direct object of a verb or the object of a preposition • Whom did he marry this time • With whom were you dancing at his wedding?
The least you need to know • Case is the form of a noun or pronoun that shows how it is used in a sentence • English has three cases: nominative, objective, and possessive • Use the nominative case to show the subject of a verb; use the objective case to show the object of a verb; us the possessive case to show ownership.
To study • Look at the Chapter reviews on page 143 - 145