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Using Pronouns Correctly

Using Pronouns Correctly

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Using Pronouns Correctly

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  1. Chapter 6 Using Pronouns Correctly

  2. Overview • Case • Nominative • Objective • Possessive • Special problems • Appositives • Elliptical constructions • Reflexive and Intensive • Who and whom

  3. Diagnostic PreviewPage 122 • Number your paper 1 – 10 and complete Diagnostic Preview – A. Proofreading Sentences for Correct Pronoun Forms.

  4. Answers • She should be Her • Correct • Him should be He • Her should be She • Us should be We • Who should be Whom • Myslef should be I • Correct • You should be Your • Whom should be who

  5. Case Nom nom nominative case. • Caseis the form of a noun or pronoun that shows how it is used in a sentence. • The grammatical role a noun or pronoun plays in a sentence • Nominative (subjective) Case • Personal pronouns used as subjects and as predicate nominatives (pg 125) • Objective Case • Personal pronouns used as direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions (pg 128) • Possessive Case • Personal pronouns used to show ownership or possession (pg 131)

  6. The Rules • Use the nominative case to show the subject of a verb • (She, Her) explained the strategy • She is the subject of the verb explained • I know of no other person in the company who is as smarmy as (he, him) • He is the subject of the understood verb is

  7. Exception Rule 1 • A pronoun used as the subject of an infinitive is in the objective case: • Billy Bob expects Frankie Bob and (I, me) to make squirrel stew. • Me, since it is the subject of the infinitive to make Squirrel!

  8. HINT • Mentally supply the missing verb. • Herbert knows the material better than (he/him) • Supplying the missing verb does tells you the correct pronoun is he.

  9. Rules 2. A pronoun used as a predicate nominative is in the nominative case • A predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun after some form of to be (is, was, might have been, and so on). • The verb to be – in all its forms, is the same as an equal sign • It was (they, them) who first suggested getting the 90 pound puppy • It was they who first suggested getting the 90 pound puppy

  10. Let’s practice • Complete Exercise 1: Using Pronouns in the Nominative Case

  11. Answers • They – P.N. • They – subject • They – subject • They – subject • He – subject • He – predicate nominative • They – P.N. • She – subject / they – subject • They – subject • She – subject / he - subject

  12. Rules 3. Use the objective case to show that the noun or pronoun receives the action • (Who, Whom) can you send to help us? • Whom is the direct object of the verb can send. • The taxidermist promised to notify Herman and (I, me) of this plans for the moose. • Me (together with Herman) is the object of the infinitive to notify Um, please just send the guy on the left.

  13. Rules 4. A pronoun used in an appositive with a noun is in the same case as the noun. • Appositive is a noun or pronoun placed after another noun or pronoun to identify, explain, or rename • The bond traders, Alice and (she, her) were given bonuses large enough to buy their own banana republic • The pronoun must be in the nominative case (she) because it is in apposition with the noun bond traders.

  14. Rules 5. Use the possessive case to show ownership • The manager refused to acknowledge that the memo was (her’s / hers) • Hers is the correct spelling of the possive case, which is needed to express ownership • The boss disapproves of (me, my) leaving the office early • The meaning of the sentence requires the possessive case: my. • Be careful not to confuse possessive pronouns and contractions.

  15. Rules 6. Use the subjective case after linking verbs Think about it: because a pronoun coming after a linking verb renames the subject, the pronoun must be in the subjective (nominative) case • The flasher of the month was (I, me) • Use I since the pronoun renames the subject, flasher of the month.

  16. Rules 7. Use –self forms correctly with reflexive or intensive situation Reflexive pronouns reflect back to the subject or object • The superhero embarrassed himself • Unfortunately, he had to rely on himself to save the day. • Don’t use reflexive pronouns in place of subjects and objects • The diner and (myself, I) had a chat. • The diner and I had a chat • Intensive pronouns provide emphasis • The superhero felt that his reputation itself was at stake.

  17. Special Problems • Appositives (non-essential information – pg 132) • A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same case as the word which it refers • A pronoun following than or as in an elliptical construction is in the same case as it would be if the construction were completed (pg 134) • Reflexive and Intensive pronoun (pg 135)

  18. Let’s practice • Complete Exercise 2: Using Pronouns in the Objective Case on page 129

  19. Answers • Them – indirect object • Her – i.o. • Him – i.o. • Me – direct object • Him – d.o. / me – d.o. • Him – i.o. • Him – i.o. • Her – i.o. • Him – d.o. • Them – d.o.

  20. Special problems • Who and Whom (pg 137) • 3 rules • Use who or whoever when the pronoun is the subject of a verb • Who said, “Mr. Kelly is like Banquo” • Use who or whoever when the pronoun is the predicate nominative • The winner was who? • Use whom or whomever when the pronoun is the direct object of a verb or the object of a preposition • Whom did he marry this time • With whom were you dancing at his wedding?

  21. The least you need to know • Case is the form of a noun or pronoun that shows how it is used in a sentence • English has three cases: nominative, objective, and possessive • Use the nominative case to show the subject of a verb; use the objective case to show the object of a verb; us the possessive case to show ownership.

  22. To study • Look at the Chapter reviews on page 143 - 145