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Chap 22 – Digestion continued. *Learning Objectives continued…. Review. 1. How do villi & microvilli increase surface area in the small intestine? And how does that contribute to absorption of nutrients?. Small Intestine Specialized Structures in the Wall, pgs 799 - 801.

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chap 22 digestion continued

Chap 22 – Digestion continued

*Learning Objectives continued…

review
Review

1. How do villi & microvilli increase surface area in the small intestine? And how does that contribute to absorption of nutrients?

small intestine specialized structures in the wall pgs 799 801
Small Intestine Specialized Structures in the Wall, pgs 799 - 801

Instructions: Do you already know what these do? Spend a few minutes reading up on & defining the following structures in your notes. Be ready to share responses with classmates.

  • 5 unique structures:

1. lacteals

2. intestinal crypts

(or Crypts of Lieberkuhn)

3. Paneth cells

4. Peyer’s patches

5. duodenal (Brunner’s) glands

small intestine gross anatomy
Small Intestine Gross Anatomy
  • Half the diameter of the large intestine (1.5 inches)
  • 11-12 ft long
  • Comprised of:

_______ (8 ft long running from the duodenum to the ileum)

_____ (12 ft long which is connected to the large intestine at the _______ valve) or area where ileum connects to large intestine

  • Jejunum & ileum hang in sausage-like coils held in place by _________ (supportive lining)

mesentery

digestion in the small intestine continued
Digestion in the Small Intestine continued
  • Huge job remaining!
  • Remaining _____, ______, ____ & ______ acids must be digested
  • Occurs with help from liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
liver pg 802 805
Liver, pg 802 - 805

right

  • The largest gland in the body
  • Superficially has four lobes – ________, _____, ________, and ____________.
  • Responsible for:
    • Production of _____
    • Processing bloodborne nutrients
    • Storage of fat-soluble vitamins
    • Detoxification

left

caudate

quadrate

Action Item: Define “bile” now in your notes. Definition is found on page 805.

slide8
Bile
  • A yellow-green, _______ solution containing bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, neutral fats, phospholipids, and electrolytes
  • Bile salts are cholesterol derivatives that:
    • Emulsify ____
    • Facilitate ____ and ________ absorption
    • Help solubilize cholesterol
  • The chief bile pigment is _________, a waste product of heme

bilirubin

gallbladder
Gallbladder
  • Thin-walled, green muscular sac on the ventral surface of the liver
  • _____ and concentrates bile by absorbing its water and ions
  • When released, bile enters the _________
pancreas
Pancreas
  • Location
    • Lies deep to the greater curvature of the stomach
    • The head is encircled by the duodenum and the tail abuts the spleen
  • Exocrine function
    • Secretes pancreatic juice which breaks down all categories of foodstuff
    • _____ (clusters of secretory cells

surrounding ducts)

pancreas continued
Pancreas continued
  • Active enzymes secreted
    • Amylase (digests ______), lipases (digests ____), and nucleases (digests _____ ____)
    • Also bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice (to help neutralize acids)
review thus far
Review (Thus Far)

*See handout. Complete now; will check answers after you have completed

large colon
Large Colon
  • Has three unique features:
    • ______ ____ – three bands of longitudinal smooth muscle in its muscularis
    • _______ – pocketlike sacs caused by the tone of the teniae coli
    • _________ ___________ – fat-filled pouches of visceral peritoneum
large intestine continued
Large Intestine continued
  • Is subdivided into the cecum, appendix, colon, rectum, and anal canal
  • The saclike cecum:
    • Lies below the ileocecal valve in the right iliac fossa
    • Contains a wormlike vermiform _________

True function of appendix recently discovered: http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/10/10/2055374.htm

large intestine 101 gross anatomy
Large Intestine 101 Gross Anatomy

Label ONLY structures circled in red on our practice diagram.

functions of large intestine
Functions of Large Intestine
  • Other than digestion of enteric _______, no further digestion takes place
  • Vitamins, water, and electrolytes are ___________
  • Its major function is propulsion of fecal material
  • Though essential for comfort, the colon is ___ essential for life
bacteria flora of the gut
Bacteria Flora of the Gut
  • Microorganisms perform a host of useful functions, such as ________ unused energy substrates, and _________ growth of harmful species
  • Release bi-products (i.e., gas) as they digest left-over food particles