cardiovascular system blood vessels anatomy chap 22 n.
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Cardiovascular system - Blood Vessels Anatomy Chap. 22. Arteries. Veins. Arterioles. Venules. Capillaries. Basic Anatomy of Circulatory routes. Carry blood towards the heart. Carry blood away from the heart. Connect capillaries to veins.

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Cardiovascular system - Blood Vessels Anatomy Chap. 22

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basic anatomy of circulatory routes






Basic Anatomy of Circulatory routes

Carry blood towards the heart

Carry blood away from the heart

Connect capillaries to veins

Control blood flow into capillaries & help regulate BP

Allow for “exchange” (filtration/reabsorption) of O2/CO2, nutrients/wastes

arteries veins
Arteries & Veins

Both are comprised of 3 layers of tissue surrounding “lumen” through which blood will flow: tunica interna, tunica media & tunica externa

Structural difference between arteries & veins primarily due to differences in pressure of blood flowing within

arteries veins1
Arteries & Veins
  • Tunica Interna – innermost endothelium of simple squamous epithelium + basement membrane
    • Arteries – have an “internal elastic lamina” of elastic CT to allow for expansion under pressure
    • Veins – may have “valves” (folds of endothelium + CT) to prevent backflow of blood due to low pressure
arteries veins2
Arteries & Veins
  • Tunica Media – middle layer containing smooth muscle (for contractility/vasoconstriction) & elastic CT (for elasticity)
    • Arteries – have relatively thick tunica media allowing for significant vasoconstriction & elasticity
      • Elastic/conducting arteries – relatively more elastic tissue than smooth muscle; ie. aorta, pulmonary trunk, etc.
      • Muscular/distributing arteries - relatively more muscle tissue than elastic tissue; ie. brachial, femoral, etc.
    • Veins – relatively thin tunica media therefore no significant constriction/elasticity
arteries veins3
Arteries & Veins
  • Tunica Externa (a.k.a. adventitia) – made of collagenous CT
    • Arteries – thin layer
    • Veins – thickest layer of vein, trying to support against gravity & low pressure
arterioles venules
Arterioles & Venules
  • Very small, almost microscopic vessels with only 2 layers of tissue surrounding lumen
  • Arterioles – endothelium (tunica interna) + very thin layer of smooth muscle cells (tunica media); regulate blood flow to tissues & affect arterial blood pressure
  • Venules – endothelium (tunica interna) + thin layer of CT (tunica externa)


  • Microscopic, very thin-walled vessels comprised of endothelium with basement membrane; allows for filtration and reabsorption
  • Found in all tissues of the body except for those that are “avascular”
  • Usually form branching networks (“capillary beds”) within tissues for increased surface area
  • blood flow into capillaries may be regulated by “pre- capillary sphincters”
  • may have a central or “thoroughfare” channel that provides direct connection between “metarteriole” (terminal end of arteriole) & venule

Capillaries can be classified as continuous, fenestrated, or sinusoids

circulatory routes systemic circuit

Left common carotid artery

Brachiocephalic trunk

Left subclavian artery

Ascending aorta (gives off coronary arteries)

Aortic arch

Thoracic (descending) aorta

Abdominal aorta

Common iliac arteries

Circulatory Routes – Systemic circuit
  • Arterial blood from left ventricle into ascending aorta
  • Venous return to right atrium through SVC, IVC & coronary sinus
cerebral circulation
Cerebral circulation

Cerebral arterial circle (“circle of Willis):

Basilar artery (from union of vertebral arteries) + Internal carotid arteries


Hepatic portal circulation


Venous blood flow from GIT & spleen to liver – ensures delivery of nutrients to liver first

Hepatic artery

Cystic vein

Lt. gastric vein

Splenic vein



Hepatic Veins

(blood mixes in sinusioids)

Hepatic Portal Vein

Superior mesenteric vein

Inferior mesenteric vein

hepatic portal circulation
Hepatic portal circulation
  • Cystic vein, left gastric vein, splenic vein, inferior & superior mesenteric veins Hepatic portal vein
  • Hepatic portal vein (deoxygenated/nutrient rich blood) + Hepatic artery (oxygenated blood) sinusoids of liver
  • Sinusoids of liver  Hepatic veins  IVC
fetal circulation
Fetal Circulation

Placenta – O2/CO2 & nutrient/waste between mom & baby

Umbilical cord – (2)umbilical arteries (baby  mom) & (1)umbilical vein (mom  baby)

Umbilical vein (O2/nutrient rich blood)  hepatic portal vein & ductus venosus  IVC  Rt. atrium

Rt. Atrium  some blood to rt. Ventricle, most shunts across foramen ovale in interatrial septum  lt. atrium  lt. ventricle

fetal circulation1
Fetal Circulation

Blood from Rt. Ventricle  pulmonary trunk  across ductus arteriosus to aorta

Aorta  systemic arteries internal iliac arteries  umbilical arteries  placenta

fetal circulation changes at birth
Fetal Circulation- Changes at Birth
  • Umbilical vein  ligamentum teres (round ligament)
  • Umbilical arteries  lateral umbilical ligaments
  • Ductus venosus  ligamentum venosum
  • Foramen ovale  fossa ovalis
  • Ductus arteriosus  ligamentum arteriosum
  • Placenta delivered (“afterbirth”)