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The Roaring ‘20s and the Great Depression

The Roaring ‘20s and the Great Depression. Economics. Became the world’s top economic power following WWI German & British economies had been wrecked by WWI The world economy became completely tied to the American economy. The United States. Economic Boom.

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The Roaring ‘20s and the Great Depression

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  1. The Roaring ‘20s and theGreat Depression

  2. Economics

  3. Became the world’s top economic power following WWI German & British economies had been wrecked by WWI The world economy became completely tied to the American economy The United States

  4. Economic Boom A rise in the standard of living during the 1920s led to increased sales of consumer goods which in turn created more jobs Mechanization of factories led to greater efficiency and a drop in prices for manufactured goods, further encouraging consumerism

  5. Economic Imbalances Industrialized nations were producing more goods than were needed Demand for raw materials dropped after WWI, hurting non-industrialized nations and farmers Factory workers won higher pay, causing the price of manufactured goods to rise

  6. Stock Speculation A long period of growth in the stock market convinced millions to take a risk and invest in stocks Investors began “buying on margin” – borrowing the money to buy stocks, believing those stocks would grow in value and allow them to easily repay the loans; but, if prices dropped, they panicked and sold quickly to avoid taking large losses

  7. “Black Tuesday” In late October, 1929 stock prices began to slip, triggering a mass sell-off as investors panicked On Tuesday, Oct. 29 the bottom fell out – the market lost $15 billion in a single day The market continued to plunge for the next 3 years and didn’t recover until after WWII – a period known as the “Great Depression”

  8. Banking Collapse Banks had made numerous loans to stock speculators and had also invested heavily themselves in the stock market When the market collapsed, banks lost big and had to stop lending With credit restricted, the economy went into a recession Many banks could not absorb their losses and closed; people who had deposited their money in these banks lost everything – this caused further panic and people began to withdraw their money from banks

  9. Scientific Discoveries

  10. Medical Advances • Canadian scientists discovered how to treat diabetes using insulin • British scientists discovered penicillin for treating infections • French scientists discovered how to treat tuberculosis

  11. Sigmund Freud • 1856 – 1939 • Austrian doctor who pioneered the field of psychoanalysis • Developed the “talking therapy” for treating simple neuroses • Attempted to explain how dreams develop • Believed that all human motivation was driven by unfulfilled sexual desires • Developed idea of ego & id • Almost all of his theories were incorrect, but they led to more research into psychology

  12. Marie Curie • 1867 – 1934 • Polish-French scientist • Won Nobel Prizes in physics and chemistry • Discovered 2 new radioactive elements (radium & polonium) • Unfortunately, her research also killed her – she died from radiation poisoning

  13. Albert Einstein • 1879 – 1955 • German / American • Non-practicing Jew who left Germany for the US due to growing anti-Semitism • Developed his theory of relativity (E=mc²) which explains the relationship between time and space • His theories helped in the development of the atomic bomb

  14. Visual Artistic Movements

  15. Cubism: art made up of many broken angles and planes

  16. Pablo Picasso • 1881 – 1973 • Spanish artist • Known for painting in a multitude of styles, but is perhaps most famous for his development of cubism • 10 of his paintings have sold since his death for over $60 million EACH, including two for over $100 million

  17. Abstract Art: art made up of lines, colors, & shapes with no recognizable subject

  18. Paul Klee • 1879 – 1940 • Swiss artist • Experimented with many different forms of art, including music – he even “painted” music • Deeply affected by the death of many of his friends in WWI • Forced out of Germany by the Nazis, moved back to Switzerland

  19. Dadaism: art “without discipline or morality” which is designed to shock

  20. Hans (Jean) Arp • 1886 – 1966 • French-German • Born in territory disputed by France & Germany • Faked insanity to avoid serving in the German army in WWI • Fled to Switzerland during WWII

  21. Surrealism: art that attempt to portray the workings of the unconscious mind

  22. Salvador Dali • 1904 – 1989 • Spanish artist • Eccentric, liked the attention of fame • Kicked out of art school • Disowned by his family over his art, sexuality, and religious views

  23. Bauhaus Architecture

  24. Frank Lloyd Wright • 1867 – 1959 • American architect • Also designed furniture, stained glass windows • Designed over 500 buildings, mostly private homes, many of which have been preserved as historic landmarks

  25. Dorothea Lange • 1895 – 1965 • Photojournalist • Lange's photographs humanized the tragic consequences of the Great Depression and profoundly influenced the development of documentary photography

  26. Lange’s Photos

  27. Literary Movements

  28. The Lost Generation • Term used to describe the generation which reached adulthood during the 1920s • These young people were “lost” in that they felt trapped by the corrupt, greedy society in which they lived and their own experiences in WWI

  29. Erich Maria Remarque • 1898 – 1970 • German, served in WWI • All Quiet on the Western Front (1929) • Eventually moved to U.S. in 1930s after Nazis banned his work • His sister was executed by the Nazis just for being related to him

  30. F. Scott Fitzgerald • 1896 – 1940 • Author of The Great Gatsby (1925) • Wrote numerous short-stories (including The Curious Case of Benjamin Button) and screenplays in addition to his 4 novels • Died from a heart attack induced by alcoholism

  31. Ernest Hemingway • 1899 – 1961 • Author of novels such as The Old Man and the Sea, A Farewell to Arms, The Sun Also Rises, and For Whom the Bell Tolls • Rugged adventurer who liked bullfighting, hunting, mountain climbing, and other dangerous hobbies • Committed suicide due to depression and alcoholism

  32. T.S. Eliot • 1888 – 1965 • American author, playwright, and poet • Famous works include the play Murder in the Cathedral, and poems The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, and The Waste Land

  33. Eugene O’Neill • 1888 – 1953 • American playwright • His plays were among the first to include speeches in American vernacular and involve characters on the fringes of society, engaging in depraved behavior, where they struggle to maintain their hopes and aspirations, but ultimately slide into disillusionment and despair

  34. John Steinbeck • 1902 – 1968 • Author of The Grapes of Wrath, a Pulitzer Prize winning novel about the tragedies which befell his fictional family of Oklahoma farmers during the Dust Bowl • Also wrote Of Mice and Men, a story about the tragic relationship between two poor migrant farmers

  35. William Faulkner • 1897 – 1962 • Nobel Prize winning novelist and short-story writer • Nearly all of his works are set in the South • His unique style often included using stream of consciousness and focused on a wide range of characters

  36. Motion Pictures

  37. 1920s Hollywood

  38. Silent Films Motion pictures initially did not have sound, so audiences had to be able to understand plots through entirely visual means; this forced actors to use highly exaggerated motions Many early films were comedies because “slapstick” provided effective visuals Most successful actor of the 1920s was comedic star Charlie Chaplin

  39. Metropolis (1927) Silent film made in Germany which many consider to be the first significant “science fiction” film ever made Silent movies, since they used no spoken language, could be effectively played anywhere in the world

  40. The Jazz Singer (1927) First “talkie” or film which had a synchronized soundtrack for dialogue This film’s success spelled the end of the silent picture era

  41. Hollywood Escapism As the Great Depression set in, people desperately wanted to escape their troubles, even if only for a few hours Movies offered a cheap form of escapism (most theaters were also heated and air-conditioned as well, allowing people to escape the chill or swelter of their apartments!)

  42. Marx Brothers Popular comedic act of the period, they starred in such films as Animal Crackers (1930), and Duck Soup (1933) Made feature films from 1921 to 1957 13 of their films were included in the top 100 comedies ever made

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