Chapter 3 States of Matter
Vocab terms- Crystalline Amorphous Conform Conversion Resistance
I. FOUR STATES OF MATTER Matter- Is made of tiny particles, called atoms & molecules. The state of matter depends on how fast the particles move & how attracted ( or sticky) they are to one another. Courtesy: http://schools.clipart.com/
A. Solids- Matter with a definite shape & volume. Particles move, (They vibrate in place). There are two types: 1. Crystalline- Have an orderly pattern of particles. Ex.) Iron, diamond, ice. 2. Amorphous- Have NO order or pattern. Ex.) Rubber, wax. Draw a picture of what the atoms might look like in the boxes in your notes Movie- solids Salt Glass Courtesy: http://msewww.engin.umich.edu:81/research/groups/falk/fracture/britduct.html Courtesy: http://www.chem.cornell.edu/dcf22/Pictures.dir/salt.jpg (See examples in text p. 60-61)
B. Liquids- Matter that has no definite shape but does have a definite volume. 1. Surface Tension-Force acting on liquid particles causing them to form drops. 2. Viscosity- A liquid’s resistance to flow. What shape is water when it is not in a container? Courtesy: http://schools.clipart.com/
Courtesy: http://www.rene-schwietzke.de/imagelib/images/all/wet-waxed-car-surface.jpg Courtesy: http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/space/teachers/microgravity/image/66.gif Courtesy: http://www.nature.com/news/2003/030908/images/chocolate_180.jpg
C. Gas- Matter with no definite shape or volume. 1. Pressure- The amount of force exerted on a given area. The number of collisions of particles against the inside of a container. Can you write the formula for pressure based on this definition? But of course nothing compares with this kind of pressure! http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/states_of_matter/ Courtesy: http://schools.clipart.com/
2.Boyle’s Law-For an amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas will increase as pressure decreases. What do you think will happen if the volume increases? Can you describe what is happening to the atoms in this law? In your notes draw a picture of high pressure/ low volume and low pressure /high volume 3. Charles’s Law- For a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, volume increases as temperature increases. What do you think will happen if the temperature decreases? Draw and label a set of pictures for this law in your notes. Video – Dr. Dad’s Gas Laws – 14 min Cortesy: www.unitedstreaming.com
Courtesy: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/aboyle.html Video: Boyle’s Law Courtesy: http://www.ap.stmarys.ca/demos/content/thermodynamics/boyles_law/boyles_law.html Other quick video Courtesy: http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/602/616516/Media_Assets/Chapter09/Text_Images/FG09_05.JPG
Courtesy: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/Animation/gaslab/Images/chvlmp.gif Courtesy: http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/602/616516/Media_Assets/Chapter09/Text_Images/FG09_07.JPG
E. Plasmas- Matter with no definite shape or volume and whose particles have broken apart. Plasmas have properties different from gases: 1. Plasmas conduct electricity. 2. Plasmas are affected by electric & magnetic fields. 3. Plasmas are found in lightning and fire. 4. Artificial plasmas are found in fluorescent lights by passing electric charges in gases. (www.scilinks.org - HSTP065)
II. Changes of State Energy- If energy is added to a substance, particles move faster. If it is removed, they move slower. 1. Temperature- The measure of energy of a substance (related to the speed it’s particles are moving). 2. Heat- A transfer of energy causing a temperature change, which can lead to a change in its state.
A. Melting- Change in state from a solid to a liquid. Give a non-water example. . Melting Pointis acharacteristic property Why? . Endothermic change- Energy absorbed as a substance changes states. Draw a picture of the atoms in something that is frozen and the atoms in something that has melted. What are the differences? Courtesy: http://schools.clipart.com/ Where does the energy come from?
B. Freezing- Change in state from liquid to a solid. 1. Freezing Point- Same as melting point. What is the freezing point of water? What is the melting point of water? 2. Exothermic change- Energy is removed from a substance as it changes states. Particle movement slows down to a “vibrate in place” How’s this for frozen in place? (Demos on this include alcohol on the skin, and freezing water) Courtesy: http://schools.clipart.com/
C. Vaporization- Change in state from liquid to gas. (Endothermic) ( 2 types) 1. Boiling Point- Occurs when the transition from a liquid to gas occurs throughout the liquid. It is acharacteristic propertyat standard air pressure ( 1 atm) What is a characteristic property? What is the boiling point of water? What do you see happening in water when it boils? Boiling point can be changed one way. Change the pressure. There is less air pressure in Denver. This means that a lower the temperature is needed to boil water. Ex.) Water boils at 100 C in Miami FL, In Denver, CO (1 mile above sea level), water boils at 95 C. What can change the temperature that water boils at? If the temperature that water boils at can change why is it still a characteristic property?
2. Evaporation- Vaporization on the surface of a liquid, below it’s boiling point. Courtesy: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/imgkin/vapp4.gif Notice that evaporation can only occur on the surface Ex.) Sweat leaving your skin (Feel cooler because your body transfers energy to water). What temperature can evaporation occur?
E. Condensation- Change in state from a gas to a liquid. Exothermic change at the same temperature as the boiling point. Courtesy: ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/ watercyclecondensation.html Courtesy: http://www.morriszone.com/images/100_0790.JPG What happens in the environment when fog is formed?
F. Sublimation- Change in state from a solid directly to a gas. (Endothermic) Ex.) Dry ice. Courtesy: http://www.linde-gas.com/International/Web/LG/COM/likelgcomn.nsf/DocByAlias/nav_dryice_characteristics Frozen Carbon Dioxide
G. While a substance is changing states, its temperature doesn’t change until the substance has changed completely. (p.73, figure 19) (www.scilinks.org - HSTP070) During a change of state the energy of the substance will change but not the temperature. How can this be? .