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Industrialization 1865 – 1901. Industrialization. Causes. Natural Resources. The United States Becomes an Industrial Nation. Large Workforce. Free Enterprise. New Inventions. Natural Resources. Water, timber, coal, iron & copper Transcontinental Railroad played a part

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Natural Resources

The United States Becomes an Industrial Nation

Large Workforce

Free Enterprise

New Inventions

natural resources
Natural Resources
  • Water, timber, coal, iron & copper
    • Transcontinental Railroad played a part
  • 1859 – Edwin Drake drills first oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania
large workforce
Large Workforce
  • US population triples between 1860-1910
    • 30 million to 90 million
    • Increased demand for goods and services
  • Immigration
    • 1870 to 1910 20 million immigrants
free enterprise
Free Enterprise
  • Laissez-faire – “let people do as they choose”
    • No government intervention
    • Free Markets
  • Entrepreneurs – risk takers and innovators
    • In late 1800’s invested in manufacturing
  • Pacific Railway Act (1862) – construction of transcontinental railroad
    • Union Pacific
      • 10,000 workers – Civil War vets, Irish Immigrants, farmers, miners, ex-cons
    • Central Pacific
      • 10,000 Chinese workers
    • Met at Promontory, Utah
railroads cont
Railroads (cont)
  • Railroads linked the nation
    • Larger markets for goods
    • Stimulated the economy
      • Spent money on steel, coal, timber, etc.
railroads cont1
Railroads (cont)
  • 1883 – American Railway Association divided country into four time zones
railroad abuses corruption
Railroad Abuses (Corruption)
  • Land Grants – free land given to railroad companies to encourage construction
    • Railroads sold the land to settlers, real estate agencies, and others
  • Price Fixing – agreements between companies to set prices
    • Kept farmers in debt
railroad abuses cont
Railroad Abuses (cont)
  • Credit Mobilier – owned by Union Pacific
    • Awarded UP’s contracts, then overcharged UP
      • Money went into the pockets of the UP investors
    • Union Pacific almost went bankrupt
      • Congress gave more land grants
    • Investigation implicates many members of congress
railroad abuses cont1
Railroad Abuses (cont)
  • Interstate Commerce Act
    • Tried to stop railroad abuses and corruption
    • Federal govt oversees railroads
rise of big business
Rise of Big Business
  • By 1900 big businesses dominated economy
    • Corporation –organization owned by many people, but treated by law as if a single person
    • Owners buy shares of stock and are called stockholders
      • Allows a corp. to raise large sums of money
corporations vs small manufacturing companies
Corporations vs. Small Manufacturing Companies
  • Small Manufacturing Companies
  • Low Fixed Costs
  • High Operating Costs
  • Shut down during poor economies
  • Corporations
  • High Fixed Costs
  • Low Operating Costs
  • Lots of money to maintain factories during poor economies

The Shoe Cobbler


Nike Shoe Corp.

consolidation of industry
Consolidation of Industry
  • Small companies were forced out of business-designed to eliminate or reduce competition, so are Corporations unethical?
  • Monopoly – when a single company controls an entire market
consolidation of industry cont
Consolidation of Industry (cont)
  • Vertical Integration
    • company that owns all the different businesses it depends on for operation
consolidation of industry cont1
Consolidation of Industry (cont)
  • Horizontal Integration
    • combining many firms doing the same type of business into one large corporation
consolidation of industry to eliminate or reduce competition
Consolidation of Industry (to eliminate or reduce competition)
  • Trusts – allows one person to manage another’s property
    • Standard Oil forms first trust
    • Controlled 90% of refining
  • Holding Company – Owns stock of other companies, does not produce anything
  • Robber Baron – Capitalist who became wealthy through exploitation or Captains of Industry…i.e. Andrew Carnegie -Steel/John D. Rockefeller-Oil
consolidation of industry cont2
Consolidation of Industry (cont)
  • Andrew Carnegie
    • Poor Scottish immigrant who became very rich
    • Made early money in railroad
    • Invested in Carnegie Steel company in 1873
    • Known for his work in the steel industry
    • Donated 90% of his total wealth to charity and the arts, “The Gospel of Wealth”
consolidation of industry cont3
Consolidation of Industry (cont)
  • Sherman Antitrust Act – made it illegal to interfere with free trade
labor unions
Between 1865 – 1897, the U.S. experienced deflation – rise in the value of money

Prices fell

Companies cut wages

Workers begin to organize labor unions

Labor Unions
labor unions organize
Labor Unions (organize)
  • Reasons for Unions
    • Long hours,

12+ hours/day, 6 days/week

    • Low Wages
    • Poor, Unsafe conditions
    • No job security
labor unions cont
Labor Unions (cont)
  • Child Labor
    • Long hours, Less pay
    • More Danger
labor unions cont1
Labor Unions (cont)
  • Trade Unions – formed by craft workers limited to those with a specific skill
    • By 1873, there were 32 trade unions
  • Industrial Unions –united craft and common laborers
    • Companies outwardly opposed them
labor unions cont2
Labor Unions (cont)
  • Strategies vs. Unions
    • Contracts promising not to join a union
    • Hiring private detectives (Pinkertons)
    • Blacklists – preventing troublemakers from getting new jobs in their industry
    • Lockouts – Workers were locked out of the worksite and not paid
    • Strikebreakers – workers hired to replace strikers
      • Also called “scabs”
labor unions cont3
Labor Unions (cont)
  • Karl Marx “The Communist Manifesto”
    • World history was a class struggle between the oppressing owners and the oppressed workers
    • The proletariat (working-class oppressed) would overthrow the bourgeoisie (middle-class oppressors) in a violent revolution and set up a dictatorship
      • Produce a society without classes
labor unions cont4
Labor Unions (cont)
  • American Federation of Labor
    • Large trade union
    • Samuel Gompers was first leader
      • Wanted to have unions accepted in America
    • Three goals:
      • Have companies recognize unions
      • Closed shops – can only hire union workers
      • 8 hour workday
labor unions cont5
Labor Unions (cont)
  • Knights of Labor
    • 8 hour workday
    • Equal pay for women
    • End of child labor
    • Worker-owned factories
    • Favored arbitration – third party helps workers and management come to an agreement
labor unions cont6
Labor Unions (cont)
  • By 1900, women were 18% of workforce
    • Paid less than men
    • Not allowed in unions
  • Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL) – first union dedicated to women’s labor issues
    • Created by Mary Kennedy O’Sullivan & Leonora O’Reilly
labor unions cont7
Labor Unions (cont)
  • Great Railroad Strike
    • 1877-Railroad workers strike to protest wages being cut
      • 80,000 workers in 11 states
      • Destroyed railroads and trains
      • Violence erupted
    • President Hayes forced to call out the army to stop it
labor unions cont8
Labor Unions (cont)
  • Haymarket Riot
    • 1886-Chicago-Protest against police brutality
    • Clash between strikers and police involving a bomb and gunfire
    • 7 police and 4 workers killed
labor unions cont9
Labor Unions (cont)
  • Homestead Strike-”The River Ran Red”
    • The Homestead Strike was an industrial lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892.
    • The dispute occurred at the Homestead Steel Works in the town of Homestead, Pennsylvania, between the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (the AA) and the Carnegie Steel Company.
    • The final result was a major defeat for the union and a setback for efforts to unionize steelworkers.
labor unions cont10
Labor Unions (cont)
  • Pullman Strike
    • 1894-The American Railway Union (ARU) led by socialist Eugene Debs strikes against the Pullman Palace Car Company
    • Turned violent after company hired strikebreakers
effects of industrialization
Effects of Industrialization
  • Growth of large corporations
  • New and plentiful manufacturing goods
  • Poor working conditions in factories and sweatshops
  • Increased labor activism