Section 1: The Expansion of Industry, Pages 228-251 A New industrial Age
U.S. Industrialization, 1870-1900 • In the 1860s the U.S. lagged behind Great Britain, France, and Germany in industrial output. • By 1900 the U.S. had moved so far into the lead that factories in the U.S. produced more than all THREE of the European leaders combined? • How and why did this rapid change occur?
Why did the U.S. industrialize so rapidly between 1870 and 1900? • 1. America had abundant natural resources: coal, iron ore, oil, timber, rivers • 2. Large and growing labor supply (workers) • 3. Widespread faith in capitalism • 4. Federal government and legal environment promoted the growth of big business 5. A surge in technological innovation 6. The nation had a group of talented and ambitious entrepreneurs along with a tradition of hard work and an adventurous American spirit 7. An expanding domestic marketplace
How did Edwin L. Drake contribute to industrialization? • He was the first to use a steam engine to drill for oil. • Led to a boom in the oil business in the U.S. • Oil was used for kerosene to light homes and later for automobiles.
What was the Bessemer process? • Bessemer process was a way to remove air pockets from iron to produce steel. • ***Steel was used for Railroads Bridges (Brooklyn Bridge) First Skyscrapers (Cities grew) Farm Machinery Barbed wire (fenced in the West) Small Appliances
Vide0: Steel and Skyscrapers • Story of Us , Disc 2 • Cities • 12:30, Edison at 35:00 • http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=1Lw9Px59gsY&name=America%3A+The+Story+of+Us+-+E07+-+Cities&uploadUsername=reuptakes&hitCount=2788
What inventions of the time changed the way people lived and worked? • Light bulb • Electricity • Telephone • Typewriter • Refrigerated railroad cars
EalexanA • Thomas Edison
What contributions did Thomas Edison make? • 1. He perfected the light bulb • 2. He set up the first research lab at Menlo Park • 3. He helped design a system to distribute electricity
How did the light bulb and electricity transform American life? • Americans no longer worked by the sun • Factories and businesses can operate 24 hours a day • Electric street cars allowed people to travel faster • Factories could produce goods faster and cheaper
Video Thomas Edison • Story of US • Disc 2 • Cities • 34:00
What led to a revolution in communication in the U.S.? • Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone • Americans could communicate faster and over longer distances • Led to a worldwide communications network that changed the way people worked and lived
U. S. Patents Granted 1790s 276 patents issued. 1990s 1,119,220 patents issued.
Technology and New Inventions included…. • Ice Machine • Refrigerated railroad car • Automated loom • Mass produced shoes
Standard sizes were developed from measurements taken from Union soldiers during the Civil War.
Next: The Age of Railroads
THE AGE OF THE RAILROADS • CHAPTER 6, SECTION 2 • Page 236-240 • Question: What name would you give to the present age?
What was the Transcontinental Railroad? • A Railroad that connected the • West to the East • Central Pacific (began in CA) • Union Pacific railroads connected at • Promontory Point, Utah • Completed 1869
How did Railroad Expansion Change American Life? • Cities and towns grew, the West was settled • Business corruption led to government regulation of railroads • Standardized time—times zones were set up • Better diets and cheaper goods for Americans • Industry (factories) spread across the nation • Americans traveled more
Standardized time (Time Zones) 1883 • Railroad companies set up time zones to manage the train schedule • 4 time zones in the U.S. • Quickly adopted by other businesses • ***Americans began to work and live by the clock
Pullman Company • Manufactured sleeper cars for trains • Owned by George Pullman • Pullman, Illinois was a town built to house company workers
Reasons for Government Regulation of Businesses (1870-1900s) • Some businessmen were corrupt • Railroads impacted the entire economy • Monopolies hurt the consumer (higher prices)
What was the Credit Mobilier Scandal? Construction Company hired to lay tracks -Purpose: to steal railroad money for its shareholders-Stole $23 million-An Example of corrupt business practices of some companies
Which laws were adopted to give the government more power to regulate the railroads? (1870-1900 • Granger Laws –to set railroad fares • Munn v Illinois court case • Sherman Antitrust Act • Interstate Commerce Act
What was Munn v Illinois, 1877? • Supreme Court case • States won the right to regulate the railroads • Farmers and other consumers benefitted from regulation of fares
What was the Interstate Commerce Act, 1887? • Purpose: to lower railroad rates • Stated the federal government had the right to regulate businesses (railroads) • Set up the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Advantages of Railroad Expansion (1877-1890) • Travel across the country was faster and safer • Goods traveled faster and cheaper to consumers • Connected markets and spurred settlement of the West • Supported economic growth • Time zones were established
Disadvantages of Railroads (1877-1890) • Farmers resented railroad companies because they controlled shipping fees • Some railroad owners were corrupt in abusing their power • Workers were sometimes overworked and underpaid • Carried more settlers West and led to decline of Plains Indians