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Biotechnology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Biotechnology
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  1. Biotechnology

  2. Comparative genomics also has been used to identify recently mobilized transposons in genetically diverse humans. For example, over 600 recent transposon insertions were identified by examining DNA resequencing traces from 36 genetically diverse humans. Tbl 1Which transposable elements are active in the human genome? (2007) Ryan E. Mills et al. Trends in Genetics 23: 183-191

  3. DNA fingerprinting using RFLPs

  4. Visualizing differences in DNA sequence by using restriction enzymes Sequence 1 Sequence 2

  5. Restriction Enzymes cut DNA at specific sequences

  6. Examples of some restriction enzymes…

  7. Visualizing differences in DNA sequence by using restriction enzymes Sequence 1 Sequence 2

  8. Separating DNA on a gel by size

  9. Gel electrophoresis Fig 20.11

  10. Visualizing differences in DNA sequence by RFLPs

  11. DNA fingerprinting

  12. DNA fingerprinting

  13. DNA fingerprinting

  14. Can DNA be obtained from hair?

  15. How can DNA be obtained from such a small sample?

  16. The inventor of PCR

  17. Polymerase Chain Reaction: amplifying DNA

  18. Polymerase Chain Reaction Fig 20.14

  19. Polymerase Chain Reaction: Primers allow specific regions to be amplified.

  20. The inventor of PCR PCR animation http://www.dnalc.org/ddnalc/resources/pcr.html

  21. Areas of DNA from very small samples can be amplified by PCR, and then cut with restriction enzymes for RFLP analysis.

  22. What is the largest scale experiment that is being currently performed?

  23. Genetically Modified Organisms

  24. Human resource production and use

  25. from Teosinte Maize By artificial selection that began ~10,000 years ago.

  26. Figure 20-19 Fig 20.19

  27. Wild Brassica oleracea: small side buds Artificial selection 1. Select individuals that have the largest side buds and breed them. 2. Of the offspring, select individuals that have the largest side buds and breed them. Number of Individuals 3. Of the offspring, select individuals that have the largest side buds and breed them. 4. After several generations, bud size increases dramatically. 0 1 2 3 Size of buds (cm) Brussels sprouts: extremely large side buds

  28. Different foods from one species of plant. Created by artificial selection.

  29. Agricultural Hunter- Gatherer Industrial

  30. Genetic Engineering: Direct manipulation of DNA

  31. Global Area planted with GM Crops size of Texas, 172 Millions of Acres

  32. Why Change a Plant’s DNA? • Can change plant so that it has new or different characteristics • Produce needed protein • Insect resistance (Bt toxin) • Herbicide resistance (Round-up) • Drought or other stress resistance • Chemical remediation

  33. Common Genetically Modified Crops % of Total US Acres

  34. Types of Genetically Modified Crops Herbicide Tolerance; Insect Resistance; Viral Resistance

  35. Is Genetically Modifying Plants a Good Idea? size of Texas, 172 Millions of Acres

  36. Is Changing an Organism’s DNA a Good or Bad Idea? • Genes flow within species and between species. • Are GM foods safe for the environment? • Are GM foods profitable for: • Consumers, Farmers, and Companies?

  37. Pollution in Gulf of Mexico from run-off in the Mississippi river AAL 25.17

  38. Pollen is easily transferred from plant to plant, and to related species.

  39. Genetic information moves. GM crops found in Oaxaca and other MX states GM crops illegal

  40. Genetic information moves, and is self-replicating. GM crops found in Oaxaca and other MX states GM crops illegal

  41. Many Questions, but Few Answers? • Are herbicide or insect resistant plants safe to eat? • Are GM foods safe for the environment? • Are GM foods profitable for: • Consumers, Farmers, and Companies?

  42. Types of Genetically Modified Crops Herbicide Tolerance; Insect Resistance; Viral Resistance

  43. Patents give 17 year monopoly for inventor

  44. Examples of current patents: • Atryn- antithrombin produced in transgenic goats (in milk) has anti-clotting properties

  45. Examples of current patents: • Atryn- antithrombin produced in transgenic goats (in milk) has anti-clotting properties • Evolutec has patents on proteins in tick saliva for use as anti-inflammatory

  46. Examples of current patents: • Atryn- antithrombin produced in transgenic goats (in milk) has anti-clotting properties • Evolutec has patents on proteins in tick saliva for use as anti-inflammator • GTG in Australia has patents on non-coding human DNA for detecting risk of various diseases

  47. Examples of current patents: • Atryn- antithrombin produced in transgenic goats (in milk) has anti-clotting properties • Evolutec has patents on proteins in tick saliva for use as anti-inflammatory • GTG in Australia has patents on non-coding human DNA for detecting risk af various diseases • Harvard patented cancer susceptible mouse

  48. Examples of current patents: • Harvard patented cancer susceptible mouse • Rejected by Canadian Supreme court in 2002