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BIOTECHNOLOGY. BIOTECHNOLOGY TERMS. Gel electrophoresis Cloning DNA fingerprint Stem cells Transgenic Human Genome Gene therapy Project Restriction enzymes Bacterial transformation Bioethics. DNA Fingerprinting (Profiling). DNA Fingerprint. DNA is extracted from cells

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  2. BIOTECHNOLOGY TERMS Gel electrophoresis Cloning DNA fingerprint Stem cells Transgenic Human Genome Gene therapy Project Restriction enzymes Bacterial transformation Bioethics

  3. DNA Fingerprinting (Profiling)

  4. DNA Fingerprint • DNA is extracted from cells • Cut with restriction enzymes • Fragments separated by gel electrophoresis • Bands compared

  5. Restriction Enzymes • Molecular scissors • Cut DNA at a specific base sequence (recognition site) • Can make blunt or sticky ends

  6. Gel Electrophoresis • DNA fragments separated by size • Electric current pulls DNA fragments through a gel Large fragments move slower; small fragments move faster

  7. Steps to DNA Fingerprinting (Profiling) • DNA is extracted from sample (skin, blood, etc.) • DNA is “cut” with restriction enzymes to make different length pieces (restriction fragment length polymorphisms – rflps)

  8. fragments are then separated using gel electrophoresis • Electrophoresis Simulation Website http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/biotech/gel/

  9. The gel is stained or Xrays taken, producing an obvious band of fragments resembling bar codes on products

  10. DNA fingerprints can be used to... • diagnose genetic disorders and identify carriers

  11. analyze evidence at crime scenes (some placed in CODIS-Combined DNA Index System) • evidence of paternity • personal identity

  12. Measure the Agar Powder

  13. Dissolve the Powder and Heat

  14. Casting the Tray

  15. Loading the Wells

  16. X-raying the Gel

  17. Finished X-Ray of Gel

  18. Complete the Gel Electrophoresis Virtual Lab! • http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/bio_07/resources/htmls/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html

  19. Bacterial Transformation • Foreign genes spliced into a bacterial chromosome (plasmid) • Gene is “turned on” • Foreign protein manufactured

  20. BacterialTransformation Bacteria will take in foreign DNA and manufacture proteins coded for in that DNA Discovery led to recombinant DNA Frederick Griffith

  21. Recombinant DNA (rDNA) • DNA from two organisms are combined • gene from one organism is spliced into another one

  22. Process (1) Foreign gene is inserted into a bacterial plasmid (2) Bacteria take in the plasmid (through transformation) (3) Bacteria that are transformed are cultured (4) Bacteria produce the protein

  23. Uses of Recombinant DNA • manufacture of insulin • manufacture of Factor VIII • manufacture of HGH (human growth hormone)

  24. TPA for dissolving blood clots (for patients that have had heart attacks) • vaccines such as for hepatitis B and Gardasil (the genes for virus proteins are inserted into yeast)

  25. medication that stimulates growth of bone marrow after a bone marrow transplant • anti-cancer medications

  26. GM (genetically modified) food crops In 2006, a total of 252 million acres of transgenic crops were planted in 22 countries by 10.3 million farmers!

  27. most GM food crops are insect-resistant, drought-resistant, etc. • some GM foods are engineered to have increased levels of vitamins, such as golden rice

  28. Are you eating GM foods? • More than 60% of food products on grocery shelves contain some crop that has been genetically modified! • For example, 81% of the soybean products are GM • 60% of canola products are from GM canola plants

  29. Are you wearing GM plant products? • 71% of the cotton used in textiles is GM • (cottonseed oil can also be found in salad dressing, peanut butter, crackers, cookies, and other foods)

  30. genetically engineered bacteria to clean oil spills • larger amounts of ethanol for fuel (biofuel)

  31. Transgenic • Organisms that have foreign genes inserted into their chromosomes

  32. transgenic animals in the future could be used for organ transplantation

  33. Complete the Bacterial Transformation Virtual Lab!! • http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/bio_07/resources/htmls/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html

  34. CLONING • Organisms with identical DNA are clones • Identical twins are clones • Plants produced by “rooting” are clones • Clones can be made by humans

  35. Some animals are cloned when they are damaged and divided, such as earthworms or starfish • We have cloned some animals by artificial means

  36. Who Was Dolly?

  37. In 1997, British scientists successfully cloned a sheep by transferring the nucleus from the cell of an adult sheep into the cytoplasm of an eunucleated fertilized egg. The egg was then transplanted into the uterus of a surrogate mother where it developed like a normal zygote into a lamb, which grew into a normal adult sheep called 'Dolly'

  38. Nuclear Transfer

  39. Benefits of Cloning • Survival of endangered species For example, a gaur is an endangered animal from Asia and has been successfully cloned

  40. Maintenance of high quality livestock for food The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in 2008, concluded that “edible products from normal, healthy clones or their progeny do not appear to pose increased food consumption risks relative to comparable products from conventional animals.”

  41. Economical importance – cloning favorite pets is expensive Cc (Carbon Copy)

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