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Biotechnology

Biotechnology

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Biotechnology

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  1. Biotechnology • The use of living cells to make products such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and beverages • The use of organisms such as bacteria to protect the environment • The use of DNA science for the production of products, diagnostics, and research

  2. Hollywood likes genetics

  3. Hall of Justice League

  4. Hawk Man and Hawk Woman from Hall of Justice Cartoons

  5. Cell Transformation— • New genes are inserted into a cell, changing the cell’s genetic makeup • Bacteria (prokaryotes) have plasmids (also other chromosomes)

  6. Genetic Engineering • Plasmid—small circular DNA molecule • a.Introduce a recombinant(R) plasmid into a bacteria cell • b.Bacteria “takes up” R plasmid—Transformed bacteria • c. Resulting transformed bacteria produces more transformed bacteria with recombinant plasmid

  7. Restriction Enzymes and Vectors • Cut Plasmid with restriction enzyme • Cut gene of interest with restriction enzyme • Splice together gene of interest and vector

  8. Eukaryotes— • More complex than prokaryotes—more cells and difficult to transform

  9. Tools for Recombination • Restriction enzymes

  10. Recombinant DNA

  11. Benefits: Vaccines • Bananas have potential to become the world's first edible vaccine due to Agrobacterium. An edible vaccine doesn't need sterile syringes, costly refrigeration, or multiple injections. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 2 million children die worldwide each year from diarrhea that can be prevented easily with vaccines. Thus, researchers lead by Dr. Charles Arntzen are looking into making the food vaccines to prevent diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholara bacteria.

  12. pGlo – GfpGreen fluorescent protein

  13. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and Plants

  14. GFP and Land Mines • Neal Stewart at the University of North Carolina is developing plants that can detect land mines • Plants could be ideal biosensors for land mines as seeds would be spread widely and evenly in a suspect field • The gene that can announce the presence of land mines is gfp • The gene will be expressed in the presence of a land mine

  15. GFP and mice--results are glowing mice

  16. Glo fish—able to detect contaminated water • Fluorescent zebra fish were specially bred to help detect environmental pollutants. By adding a natural fluorescence gene to the fish, scientists are able to quickly and easily determine when our waterways are contaminated

  17. Human Gene Therapy— • Can transform human cells in a lab dish, but not in living humans • Use Viruses carrying “fixer” genes-spray into C.F. patients symptoms improved, but….came back when cells died. • Should geneticist change human DNA? Why? When is it ok? It will become public policy soon…

  18. Recombinant DNA • The manipulation and combination of DNA from two sources • Bacterial DNA + human gene for insulin • Plant DNA + bacterial DNA - Agrobacterium tumefaciens • Mouse DNA + human DNA = transgenic

  19. Transgenic mice • Two baby mice - same age • Human Growth hormone inserted into the embryo of the mouse on the left. Causes rapid growth in the newborn • The mouse on the right is a normal sized mouse

  20. Recombination • Insert a foreign gene into a host Plasmid ( for example, exogenous DNA) into the bacterial cell – transformation or transfection-organism referred to as transgenic ( eukaryote ) or recombinant( prokaryote) • Goal – To produce many copies ( clones) of a particular gene

  21. Vectors • Plasmids • Viruses • Particles ( DNA coated bullets) • Exogenous DNA

  22. Human Genome Project

  23. Human Genome Project (HGP) • Started in 1990 • Research effort to sequence all of our DNA (46 chromosomes) • Over 3.3 billion nucleotides • Mapping every gene location (loci) • Conducted by scientists around the world

  24. HGP Insights • Only 2% of human genome codes for proteins (exons—mRNA code that leaves the nucleus to go to ribosome) • Other 98% (introns—mRNA code that is removed and stays in the nucleus) are non-coding

  25. The New Human Genetics • RIHF or RFLP’s • Specificnucleotidesequences • Located with a probe • Chemically treated sequence that binds to complimentary base

  26. The New Human Genetics • DNA codes can be used to identify and classify individuals (DNA fingerprinting) • Used to detect some genetic disorders

  27. DNA Chromosome Information—DNA Fingerprinting

  28. Crime Investigation

  29. Crime Investigation

  30. Determining Parent

  31. Cloning • Clone- a member of a group of genetically identical cells • May be produced by asexual reproduction (mitosis)

  32. Cloning “Dolly”

  33. Cloning organisms • A body cell from one organism and an egg cell from another are fused • The resulting cell divides like a normal embryo

  34. Cloning organisms

  35. Cloning organisms

  36. Cloning organisms 1 Camel 2 Carp 3 Cat 4 Cattle 5 Coyote 6 Deer 7 Dog 8 Frog (tadpole) 9 Fruit flies 10 Gaur 11 Goat 12 Horse 13 House mouse 15 Mule 16 Pig 17 Pyrenean ibex 18 Rabbit 19 Brown rat 20 Rhesus monkey 21 Sheep 22 Arctic Wolf

  37. BiotechnologyProvides: • Improved food products • Medical advances • An enhanced environment

  38. Herbicide Resistant Crops • Soybeans: Roundup Ready • Corn: Roundup Ready, Liberty Link • Cotton: BXN, Roundup Ready • Canola: Liberty Link, Roundup Ready + CP4 EPSPS = Roundup gene Ready

  39. Biotechnology Breakthroughs • Insulin (1982) • First commercial biotech product • Reliable, inexpensive source of insulin • Rice • Enriched with beta-carotene and iron • Bananas • Containing edible hepatitis vaccine

  40. Biotechnology Breakthroughs • Potatoes with higher solid content • Garlic that lowers cholesterol • Fruits and vegetables that reduce risks of cancer and heart disease

  41. Environmental Benefits • Reduced pesticide use • Lower energy requirements • Cleaner water • Less soil erosion