Biotechnology Plant and Soil Science Plant Science Technology Lesson 1 & 2
What Is Biotechnology? • Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses
Biotech Terms • Genetics – the biology of heredity • Heredity – the transmission of characteristics from an organism to its offspring through genes in reproductive cells. • Genes – components of cells which determine the individual characteristics of living things • Generation – refers to offspring of common parents • Progeny – offspring • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) – coded information in a cell that determines what that cell and its successive cells will be become.
Biotech Terms cont. • Clone – exact duplicate of something • Genetic engineering – movement of genetic information in the form of genes from one cell to another. • Mapping / Gene Mapping – identifying and recording the location of a specific gene on a chromosome. • Gene Splicing / Recombinant DNA Technology – process of removing and inserting genes into DNA.
Historic Biotech Applications • Yeast – make bread rise • Bacteria – ferment sauerkraut produce cheese(s) other dairy products • Microorganisms – transform fruit and grains into alcoholic beverages
Historic Biotech Applications • Silage • green grasses and grains have been stored in air-tight spaces and containers, such as silos, where bacteria convert sugars and starches in acids. • These acids provide a desirable taste and protect the feed from spoilage by other microorganisms