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The Respiratory System. Class Starter Questions: What are 3 functions of the respiratory system? Explain the difference between breathing and cellular respiration. What organs make up the respiratory system? Write them in order through which air passes during inhalation. .

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the respiratory system
The Respiratory System

Class Starter Questions:

  • What are 3 functions of the respiratory system?
  • Explain the difference between breathing and cellular respiration.
  • What organs make up the respiratory system? Write them in order through which air passes during inhalation.
1 what are 3 functions of the respiratory system
1) What are 3 functions of the respiratory system?
  • To provide oxygen to body cells so that they may extract the energy they need from nutrients. (cellular respiration)
  • To remove carbon dioxide (waste product) from the body.
  • To filter, warm and humidify the air we breathe.
2 explain the difference between breathing and respiration
2) Explain the difference between breathing and respiration.

Breathing is:

The process which moves air in and out of the lungs

Cellular Respiration is:

A chemical reaction that occurs inside the mitochondria of all cells. It is a combustion reaction, therefore it always releases energy.

Chemical equation for cellular respiration:

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2+ 6 H2O + energy

3 pathway of air through the respiratory system
3) Pathway of air through the respiratory system.

Nose & mouth

Nasal pasage

Pharynx

Larynx

Trachea

Bronchi

Bronchioles

Alveoli

Capillaries (where O2 enters the blood)

Lungs

slide6

What are the functions

of the organs that make up

the respiratory system?

mouth nose
Mouth & Nose
  • This is where the oxygen first

enters your body and also where carbon dioxide leaves.

  • When the air comes into your nose it gets

filtered by tiny hairs (not cilia)

  • Your mouth does not contain these hairs therefore breathing by your mouth does not filter the air as well as breathing by your nose
nasal cavity
Nasal cavity
  • Warms & humidifies air
  • Glands that produce sticky mucus line the nasal cavity
    • traps dust, pollen, and other materials that were not trapped by nasal hairs
pharynx
Pharynx
  • Tube-like passageway used by food, liquid, and air.
  • At the lower end of the pharynx is a flap of tissue called the epiglottis.
    • covers the trachea during swallowing so that food does not enter the lungs
larynx
Larynx
  • “Voice box”
  • The airway to which two pairs of horizontal folds of tissue, called vocal cords, are attached
  • When we exhale, the vocal cords vibrate which produces sound
trachea
Trachea
  • This is an air-conducting tube that connects the larynx with the bronchi
  • Lined with mucus membranes and cilia
  • Contains strong cartilage rings to hold the airway open at all times
bronchi
Bronchi
  • Two short tubes that branch off the lower end of the trachea
  • Carry air into the lungs.
  • Singular - bronchus
lungs
Lungs
  • The lungs are spongy organs which contain the bronchioles and alveoli.
  • Where gas exchange occurs
  • There are 2 lungs (right and left)
bronchioles
Bronchioles
  • Tiny branches of air tubes in the lungs
  • Connect bronchi to alveoli
alveoli
Alveoli
  • Tiny, thin-walled, grapelike clusters at the end of each bronchiole
  • Surrounded by capillaries
  • Where exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen (via diffusion) takes place
  • Singular - alveolus
pleura
Pleura
  • A double membrane that lines the lungs and adheres to the walls of the rib cage

Diaphragm

  • Dome shaped muscle between the chest and the abdomen that the body uses for breathing
gas exchange what is it
Gas Exchange- What is it?
  • Two gases, O2 and CO2 switch places
  • O2 moves from the alveoli to the capillaries
  • CO2 moves in the opposite direction, from the capillaries to the alveoli
  • This occurs by diffusion:
    • The movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
diffusion of carbon dioxide
Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide
  • Blood arriving at the alveolus is deoxygenated:
    • Low in O2
    • High in CO2
  • The concentration of CO2 inside the alveolus is lower than in the capillary
  • Thus, CO2 diffuses into the alveolus
diffusion of oxygen
Diffusion of Oxygen
  • Blood arriving at the alveolus has a low concentration of O2
  • But air entering the alveolus has a high concentration of O2
  • Thus, O2 diffuses from the alveolus (high conc.) into the capillary (low conc.)

Oxygenated blood leaving the alveolus

how does breathing work
How does breathing work?
  • Breathing is an involuntary action meaning that it occurs without conscious thought
  • However, breathing is in fact controlled by a structure in the brain called the medulla
breathing rate
Breathing Rate
  • Breathing rate = # of breaths (including inhalation AND exhalation) in 1 min
  • Your brain controls your breathing rate by monitoring the level of CO2 in your body
  • When CO2 levels are high, breathing rate increases
  • When CO2 levels are low breathing rate decreases
why does your breathing rate increase during and after exercise
Why does your breathing rate increase during and after exercise?
  • Physical activity requires increased energy production
  • Thus, your muscles must consume more O2 to release more energy
  • As a result of respiration, more CO2 is produced
  • The increased levels of CO2 in the blood flowing to your brain is a signal to the medulla to increase breathing rate
  • WHY?
    • To remove CO2 and replenish O2 at a faster rate