Mediterrean Europe • Spain • Portugal • Andorra • Italy • Vatican City • Malta • Greece
The Mediterrean region was home to the two great civilizations of ancient Europe. What were they? • Ancient Greece • Ancient Rome
Two geographic advantages helped this region develop • Mild climate made survival easier and societies had time to develop complex institutions such as government • Mediterranean Sea encouraged trade with different societies bringing new ideas to the area. This leads to advances in knowledge
The city-state of Athens developed the first democracy, a government in which the people rule. • In Athens, all free adult males were citizens who had the right to serve in the law-making assembly • Athenian democracy helped inspire the US system of government • Warring among the city-states of Greece weakened them and they were eventually conquered by Alexander the Great
“All roads lead to Rome” • As Greece was losing it’s power, Rome was rising • Founded in 753 BC • Huge empire by 100 AD • Built a large network of roads for communication and to make it easy for armies to march
Rome was a republic, a government in which citizens elect representatives to rule in their name • Rome conquered the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas • Because of turmoil in the country, Rome put aside its republic and began to be ruled by an emperor.
The invaders who overthrew Rome had no strong central government and so Italy eventually became divided into many small city-states. • In 1096, Christians launched the Crusades against the Muslims that were controlling Palestine. • Italians earned large profits by supplying ships for the Crusaders. • Italian states became rich and they grew powerful once again
Renaissance • Began in the Italian city-states • Time of renewed interest in learning and the arts that lasted from the 14th – 16th century • Renaissance ideas spread north to the rest of Europe
The Renaissance started in Italy in the 1300’s with famous artists and inventors- such as: Leonardo, Michaelangelo, Donatelo, and Rafael
Michaelangelo’s “Creation of Man” Painted on ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Iberian Peninsula • Spain and Portugal established colonies throughout the Americas and elsewhere • They spread Catholicism and the Spanish and Portuguese language throughout the world
Rock of GibraltarThe Rock of Gibraltar is famous for its strategic importance; it holds an underground military communication center and a naval base.