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Europe and Russia

Europe and Russia

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Europe and Russia

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  1. 7th Grade UBD - Unit 6 – Europe Europe and Russia

  2. Main Idea • Europe is a continent with varied geographic features, abundant natural resources, and a climate that can support agriculture. • The development of Europe’s diverse cultures has been shaped by the continent’s diverse geography.

  3. The Geography of Europe • Today, cars, airplanes, and trains are common forms of high speed transportation across Europe. • Before the 19th century, however, the fastest form of transportation was to travel by water.

  4. Waterways • Water surrounds the continent of Europe to the north, south, and west. • Europe also has many rivers. The highly traveled Rhine and Danube rivers are two of the most important. • For hundreds of years, these and other waterways have been home to boats and barges carrying people and goods inland across great distances.

  5. Key Term Europe- The world’s second-smallest continent; a peninsula of the Eurasian landmass.

  6. Key Term Russia- A country in northern Eurasia; it is the largest country in term of size in the world.

  7. Key Ideas- Land and Water • Europe, in general, has a much higher population density than most of the world. By comparison, Russia has a much lower population density. • Europe is a small continent. Only Australia is smaller. • Europe’s bays include many harbors, or sheltered bodies of water, where ships can dock enabling Western European countries to become world leaders in the shipping industry.

  8. Europe and Russia’s Population Video- Europe and Russia’s Population

  9. Europe and Russia • Europe, in general, has a much higher population density than most of the world. By comparison, Russia has a much lower population density. • Few people live in the vast plains and mountains of Eastern Russia. The poor soil and cold climate make it a difficult place to live.

  10. Key Term Population Density- The average number of people living in a given area.

  11. Size and Location • Europe and Russia are parts of Eurasia, the world’s largest landmass. • This landmass is made up of two continents, Europe and Asia. • The Ural Mountains mark the dividing line between Europe and Russia.

  12. A Small Continent and a Large Country • Some 48 countries are located in Europe; most are small. • Many are the size of an average state in the United States. • Russia on the other hand is almost twice the size of Canada or the United States.

  13. Major Landforms of Europe • The continent of Europe has lots of peninsulas and bays. • Europe’s bays have enabled Western European countries to become world leaders in the shipping industry.

  14. Major Landforms of Russia • Russia lies on the Arctic Ocean. This body of water is frozen for most of the year and cannot be used for shipping. • However, there are no physical features between Russia and Europe that form travel barriers.

  15. Plains and Uplands of Europe • Within Europe are four major land regions: the Northwestern Highlands, the North European Plain, the Central Uplands, and the Alpine Mountain System.

  16. North European Plain • Half of Europe is covered by the North European Plain. • It includes most of the European part of Russia. • This region is the most important region since it has the most productive farmland and the largest cities in Europe.

  17. North European Plain • The North European Plain stretches from the coast of France to the Ural Mountains. • The North European Plain is the location of some of the world’s richest farmland.

  18. Russian Plains and Uplands • Europe and the Western part of Russia share the North European Plain. • Russia’s largest cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg, are in this region. • There are more people living in this region than in any other part of Russia.

  19. Russian Plains and Uplands • To the East of the Urals is the Asian part of Russia- a region known as Siberia. • This region makes up 75 percent of Russian territory, but it has only about 20 percent of Russia’s people.

  20. The Deepest Lake on Earth • Lake Baikal, Russia, holds about one fifth of Earth’s fresh water. • More than 300 rivers and streams flow into Lake Baikal from the surrounding mountains.

  21. The Deepest Lake on Earth • Because Lake Baikal holds so much water, it affects the weather in the area around it. • The land near the lake is cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter.

  22. Key Term Tributary- A river or stream that flows into a larger river.

  23. Lake Baikal Video- Lake Baikal

  24. Eyewitness to History Reading Activity- Eyewitness to History 15

  25. Questions • What are two examples of ways in which physical features have affected life in Europe and Russia? • Think about the areas of Europe and Russia that are most densely populated. What physical features attract people to settle in those areas?

  26. Answers • What are two examples of ways in which physical features have affected life in Europe and Russia? • Good harbors have enabled European countries to become world leaders in the shipping industry. Few people live in the vast plains and mountains of eastern Russia. The poor soil and cold climate make it a difficult place to live. • Think about the areas of Europe and Russia that are most densely populated. What physical features attract people to settle in those areas? • People are attracted to areas that have good soil, access to freshwater and other natural resources.

  27. A Land of Varied Riches Reading Handout- A Land of Varied Riches

  28. Independent Activity • Write a paragraph about what you would see if you flew in a plane over Europe and Russia. Then explain what physical features would you see. Next, draw a picture of some of those features. (10 minutes)

  29. Key Ideas- Climate and Vegetation • Warm water from the Gulf of Mexico brings mild weather to much of Europe. • The North European Plain was once covered by grasslands, called prairies. Like the forests, most of the prairies have been cleared away. • The natural vegetation, or plant life, of Europe and Russia is as varied as the climate. Vegetation regions are related to climate regions.

  30. Oceans Affect Climate • Areas that are near the ocean or sea have fairly mild weather year round. • Areas that are far from the ocean have extreme weather.

  31. Oceans Affect Climate • Winds blowing across the ocean pick up a great deal of moisture. • When these winds blow over land, they drop the moisture in the form of rain.

  32. The Gulf Stream Video- The Gulf Stream

  33. Key Term The Gulf Stream- The current of warm water which flows across the Atlantic Ocean from the Gulf of Mexico towards Europe.

  34. Mountains Affect Rainfall • As wind rises up a mountain, it cools and drops moisture. The air is dry by the time it reaches the other side of the mountain. • Areas away from the wind are in a rain shadow.

  35. Key Term Rain Shadow- An area on the sheltered side of a mountain that receives little rainfall.

  36. The Vegetation of Europe and Russia • The natural vegetation, or plant life, of Europe and Russia is as varied as the climate. • Vegetation regions are related to climate regions.

  37. Forests and Grasslands of Europe • The natural vegetation of much of Europe is forest. However, most of these forests have been cleared to make way for farms, factories, and cities. • Much of Europe was also once covered by grasslands, called prairies. Like the forests, most of the prairies have also been cleared.

  38. Key Term Prairies- An area of grassland.

  39. Forests and Grasslands of Europe • Today, the largest forests are found only in Northern Europe and at high altitudes in the mountains. • In Northern Europe forests, such as the Black Forest are still being cut for lumber.

  40. Key Term The Black Forest- A hilly forest region in Germany that is still being cut for lumber.

  41. The Russian Tundra, Forests, and Grasslands • Russia has three great vegetation zones: the tundra, forest, and the grasslands. • The tundra and forest zones extend across Siberia. Grasslands cover southwestern Russia.

  42. Key Term Tundra- A region where temperatures are always cool or cold and where only certain plants, such as low grasses, can grow.

  43. Key Term Permafrost- Soil that is permanently frozen.

  44. Key Term Taiga- An enormous Russian forest, it is the largest forest in the world.

  45. Question • What different climates and kinds of vegetation does Europe and Russia have?

  46. Answer • What different climates and kinds of vegetation does Europe and Russia have? • The natural vegetation of much of Europe is forest and grasslands. However, many have been cleared away. Russia has three great vegetation zones: the tundra, forest, and the grassland.

  47. Reach Into Your Background • The United States has many natural resources. Which resources do you think are most important? Why? (5 minutes)

  48. Partner Activity • Work with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)

  49. Key Ideas- Natural Resources • Europe's most important natural resources include fertile soil, water, and fuels. • Russia is one of the world’s largest producers of oil and has the largest reserve, or available supply, of natural gas in the world.

  50. Resources of Western Europe • Europe is a wealthy region and a world leader in economic development. • Part of this wealth and success comes from Europe’s rich supply of natural resources. • Europe’s most important natural resources includes fertile soil, water, and fuels.