Why did Europe Decline? • Collapse of the Western Roman Empire (476) • Invasions by Germanic Tribes: (Name some) • Trade, travel, towns and learning decreased • Germanic kingdoms carved up a once united Empire G.R.A.P.E.S Roman Empire no longer unified vast regions based on government, trade & commerce, culture, education, and arts.
Key Figures in the Rise of Europe Clovis: Warrior King of the Franks who converted to Christianity (496 A.D.) Clovis Charles Martel Charlemagne Eleanor of Aquitaine Benedict St. Francis of Assisi Charles Martel: Leader of the Franks in the battle of Tours where his Christian warriors defeat Muslim invaders (732 A.D.) Charlemagne: Emperor who united much of Western Europe into a Christian kingdom.Crowned Roman Emperor in 800 A.D. Eleanor of Aquitaine: politically influential wife of King Louis VII of France and later King Henry II of England, an mother of King Richard, the Lion-heart Benedict: monk who installed the Benedictine Rule for monastic life St. Francis of Assisi: founder of the Franciscan order of friars
Artisans Peasants Merchants Comparison
The Agricultural Revolution leads to A Revival of Trade which leads to A growth of Towns and the Middle Class. Rise of Town and the Middle Class • Agricultural Revolution • Technology improves farm production • Iron plow carves deep into heavy soil of northern Europe. An improvement over wooden plows • New harness used for faster horses instead of slower oxen • larger fields + more crops = more production • Agricultural Revolution • More food = population growth • Three-field System: • field 1- plant with grain • field 2- plant with legumes • field 3- lies fallow • Legumes restored fertility to soil and added protein to their diet • From 1000 to 1300 population triples • Towns and the Middle Class • As towns grow, merchants gain power. • Guilds form and become powerful • Modern business practices develop • The Middle Class gains power • Trade and commerce gain importance • Revival of Trade • Warfare decreases • Travel becomes safer • Desire for foreign goods increases • Trade fairs develop • Towns and cities grow