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Streams and Wetlands (and intro to Aquaculture?)

Streams and Wetlands (and intro to Aquaculture?)

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Streams and Wetlands (and intro to Aquaculture?)

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  1. Streams and Wetlands (and intro to Aquaculture?) August 28th, 2007

  2. LAKES: Nutrient cycling and algal blooms Is this lake eutrophic or oligotrophic?

  3. Streams and Rivers

  4. Streams and Rivers 1st order (headwaters) 2nd order 3rd order 4th order 5th order

  5. How do large and small streams differ? • Low stream order (i.e., 1st or 2nd order) • Small, narrow, shallow • Steep, fast-flowing rocky bottom • Detritivore community breaks down litter • High stream order (i.e., 4th or 5th order) • Big, wide, deep • Shallow slope, slow flowing • Processed litter comes from upstream

  6. Stream/River Characteristics • Streamflow is determined by: • Relief • Volume of Input • Temperature • Important abiotic factors: • Sediment/Turbidity • Nutrients • Temperature • Substrate

  7. Adaptations to Stream and River Ecosystems: How have humans impacted Salmon?

  8. Alterations to Stream Habitat Fish barriers (roads/bridges) Channelization Change in riparian vegetation Changes in temperature, flow rate, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, p.p., substrate, …..

  9. Local Watersheds http://www.sbck.org/pdf/GSTReport-Background.pdf

  10. Atascadero Creek http://www.sbck.org/pdf/GSTReport-Background.pdf

  11. What’s a Wetland? Wetland- a broad term for all the different kinds of wet habitats where the land is wet for some period of time each year but not necessarily permanently wet. Ecotones- contain characteristics of two habitats (in this case, aquatic and terrestrial)

  12. Wetlands of the World

  13. Wetlands: where water meets land Types of Wetlands: • Intertidal zone marine wetland • Estuarine: river mouth + tides= brackish • Freshwater: swamps, fens, bogs, and vernal pools

  14. Which US state has lost the largest % of its wetlands (1780-1980)? CA- 91% decline (source: USGS) U.S. total = 53% decline

  15. Wetland Biogeochemistry: Depends on HYDROPERIOD! • When land is flooded, O2 gets used up by decomposers and the soil becomes anaerobic • Demand for O2 is still high • Other minerals containing oxygen get reduced • Reduction is when a compound gains an electron- in this case by giving up an O2 atom • Some molecules release O2 more easily than others O2  NO3- Fe(OH)3  MnO2  SO42-  CO2 • If the water level drops, O2 enters the soil again, and • the reduced substances can get oxidized

  16. Salt Marsh Biogeochemistry

  17. Wetland Adaptations

  18. Why Should we Care about Wetlands?

  19. Wetland Ecosystem Services • Food/Jobs • Important Habitat for Species • Clean water/Nutrient storage • Flood control • Erosion control • Carbon storage (sink?) • Tourism • “No net loss” protection for wetlands? • How could you calculate the value of a wetland?

  20. What is the value of a wetland? • “Value” is a human judgement call • Depends on if you are a: • Developer • Farmer • Engineer • Hunter • Ecologist • Chemical plant owner

  21. Why are Wetlands Diminishing? • Drained or Filled • Agriculture/residential development/industrial development/oil and gas exploitation • Lowering of water table • Polluted • wetlands are in low-lying areas • Natural causes

  22. Local Watersheds http://www.sbck.org/pdf/GSTReport-Background.pdf

  23. Goleta Slough

  24. Goleta Slough: Endangered Species + Globally Important Bird Area Red-legged Frog CA least tern Tidewater Goby American peregrine falcon

  25. Diminishing Wetlands

  26. Salt MarshLake: Santa Barbara Bird RefugePenfield & Smith Engineers, Inc.. 1985. Limnological investigation of euthrophication at the Andree Clark Bird Refuge and recommendation for mitigating actions.~135 pp. “Mother Nature at work,” ? http://www.virtualtourist.com

  27. Other Local Wetland Projects: • Vernal Pools • Carpinteria Salt Marsh • Ormond Wetland

  28. Changing Perceptions of Wetlands Bioswales: mimic wetland processes http://www.countyofsb.org/project_cleanwater/Web_Images/South_Turnpike_BMP_Xsection.jpg

  29. Wetland Value and Natural Disaster Cypress trees mitigate impacts of Hurricane Katrina Mangroves lessen tsunami impacts

  30. Wetlands and Aquaculture: Conversion of Mangroves to Shrimp Farms Mangrove forests once covered 3/4 of the coastlines of tropical and subtropical countries. Today, less than 50% remain. Many factors contribute to mangrove forest loss, including the charcoal and timber industries, urban growth pressures, and mounting pollution problems. However, one of the most significant causes of mangrove forest destruction in the past decade has been the consumer demand for luxury shrimp The Rise and Fall of the Blue Revolution: Article by Alfredo Quarto published in the East Africa Wildlife Society's magazine SWARA

  31. AQUACULTURE: The Blue Revolution?

  32. Aquaculture • Status: fastest growing food production industry in the world (1/3 of all fishery landings)

  33. Aquaculture: Fish Farms • Energy flow perspective • Fish vs. Cows • Salmon vs. carp vs. filter feeders • Farmed salmon vs. wild salmon

  34. Sustainable Aquaculture?

  35. Sustainable Aquaculture?

  36. Aquaculture: Risks • Impact on wild fish populations • Feed for farmed fish • ‘Seed’ for farmed fish • Fish escapes- invasive species • Algal blooms • Oxygen depletion • Downstream impacts • Disease • (Wet)land conversion

  37. Aquaculture: Integrated Systems Approach

  38. Aquaculture: Integrated Systems Approach BENEFITS: • Waste = food • Whole is greater than sum of parts COSTS/RISKS: • Pesticide use • Labor intensive • Limit to fish density

  39. What Can You Do? • Vote with your dollars! • Get involved! • Educate others!

  40. Summary • Wetland: definition • Types • Biogeochemistry (just know the basics!) • Ecosystem Services (filtration, C storage, flood control, habitat, food, tourism, etc) • Human causes of wetland loss • Ecosystem Value… depends on perspective. • Local Wetlands • Aquaculture • Types • Potential impacts: wetland loss, impact on marine fisheries • Energy flow perspective • Risks • Integrated systems approach