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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

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  1. Chapter 18 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

  2. LINING OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM • Peritoneum - two-layered membrane • Mesentery - part that attaches to posterior wall of abdominal cavity • Greater omentum - anterior portion that protects abdominal organs © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  3. FUNCTIONS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM • Break food into smaller pieces • Change food chemically into fat, carbohydrates, and protein • Absorb nutrients into blood capillaries of small intestines • Eliminate waste products of digestion © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  4. ORGANS OF DIGESTION © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  5. ORGANS OF DIGESTION • Many organs contribute to digestion • Mouth • Tongue • Salivary glands © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  6. ORGANS OF DIGESTION © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  7. TEETH/ ACCESSORY ORGAN OF DIGESTION • Structure of a tooth • Crown • Neck • Root • Periodontal membrane • Pulp cavity • Dentin • Enamel © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  8. ESOPHAGUS • The esophagus is a muscular tube beginning at the lower end of the pharynx, passing through the diaphragm and connecting to the upper portion of the stomach © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  9. STOMACH • Stomach is divided into 3 portions • Fundus - upper part • Greater curvature (body) - middle • Pylorus - lower portion • Gastric juices are secreted by millions of gastric glands © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  10. SMALL INTESTINE • The final preparation of food to be absorbed occurs in the small intestine • Divided into three sections • Duodenum • Jejunum • Ileum © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  11. SMALL INTESTINE • Digestive juices • Enzymes, secretin, cholecystokinin stimulate digestive juices • Pancreatic juices break down food • Bile emulsifies fat • Intestinal juices break food down further for absorption © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  12. SMALL INTESTINE • Absorption in the small intestine is accomplished through millions of villi. • The indigestible portion is passed through to the large intestine © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  13. LIVER/ACCESSORY ORGAN OF DIGESTION • Functions of the liver • Manufactures bile which is necessary for fat digestion • Produces and stores glucose in the form of glucogen • Detoxifies alcohol, drugs and other harmful substances • Manufactures blood proteins © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  14. LIVER/ACCESSORY ORGAN OF DIGESTION • Prepares urea, the chief waste product of protein metabolism • Stores vitamins A, D, and B complex • Breaks down hormones no longer useful to the body • Removes old red blood cells and recycles iron content © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  15. GALLBLADDER • The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile when it is not needed by the body © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  16. LARGE INTESTINE • Chyme is semi-liquid food in the large intestine • Colon • Ascending • Traverse • Descending • Anal Canal © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  17. GENERAL OVERVIEW OF DIGESTION • Mouth • Pharynx • Esophagus • Stomach • Small Intestine • Large Intestine © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  18. COMMON DISORDERS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM • Stomatitis • Gastroesophageal reflux disease • Hiatal hernia • Heartburn • Gastritis • Gastoenteritis • Enteritis © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  19. COMMON DISORDERS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM • Ulcer • Inflammatory bowel disease • Appendicitis • Hepatitis • Cirrhosis • Cholecystitis • Gallstones © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  20. COMMON DISORDERS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM • Pancreatitis • Diverticulosis • Diarrhea • Constipation • Stomach cancer • Colon cancer © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.