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Motorcycle Safety & Enforcement

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Motorcycle Safety & Enforcement

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  1. Motorcycle Safety & Enforcement

    International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement Standards and Training & National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Bill Sullivan NHTSA Law Enforcement Liaison913-208-5714bsully@sbcglobal.net
  2. Technology and Motorcycle Safety
  3. “The Motorcyclist” Describe in your own words the following: “What are the characteristics of a motorcyclist?” What words describe a motorcyclist and motorcycle?
  4. Course Purpose To understand why the enforcement of motorcycle laws, support of national motorcycle safety enforcement efforts and best practices are critical to reduce motorcycle fatalities and injuries. Training Objectives: Educate law enforcement officials about motorcycle safety issues and resources. Understand that the enforcement of motorcycle laws has a direct correlation with reducing the number of motorcycle fatalities and injuries. Understand the critical areas of enforcement of motorcycle laws.
  5. Course overview This training will look at situations unique to the enforcement of motorcycle laws such as the following: Motorcycle equipment required Motorcycle licensing and speeding issues Officer and motorcyclist safety Strategies for traffic stops Strategies to avoid pursuit situations Detection of impaired motorcyclists Detection of non-compliant helmets Latest on enforcement & public relations campaigns
  6. Course goals Understand critical areas of Enforcement Motorcycle Laws DUI Detection Licensing Personal Protections Equipment – Helmets Speeding
  7. MODULE 1

    WHY?
  8. What is the scope of the problem?

  9. National Statistics Injuries & Fatalities *According to US DOT, Motorcycle fatalities have more than doubled since 1998, increasing 110 percent. They Were down 16% in 2009 (4,465) Registration trends *Motorcycles account for 3 percent of all registered vehicles; however motorcycle fatalities represent 14 percent of highway fatalities in the United States. Unlicensed motorcycle drivers *1 out 4 motorcycle operators involved in fatal crashes were not properly licensed. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, Motorcycles. DOT HS 811 159 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2009). Highlights of 2009 Motor Vehicle Crashes. DOT HS 811 363
  10. National Statistics DUI is a factor in fatalities *Alcohol is a significant factor in far too many motorcycle fatal crashes. In 2008, 29 percent of all fatally injured motorcycle operators had BAC levels of .08 or higher, and 64 percent of those killed in single-vehicle crashes on weekend nights have a BAC of .08 or higher. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, motorcycles. DOT HS 811 159 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2009). Highlights of 2009 Motor Vehicle Crashes. DOT HS 811 363
  11. National Statistics Helmet Use Nationally - Helmet Laws from State to State 20 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico require helmet use by all; Other States have “partial helmet” laws based on age, or no laws requiring helmet use. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, Motorcycles. DOT HS 811 159
  12. National View National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, motorcycles. DOT HS 811 159
  13. Enforcement Issues Limited training on motorcycle laws Often specialized training Motorcycle enforcement appeals to riders What enforcement issues with motorcycle and riders do you look for?
  14. Motorcycle Risks Motorcyclists Are at Risk from Other Drivers. Drivers of all types of vehicles need to be alert of motorcycles. Motorcycles are small and may be difficult for motorists to see. Motorcycles have a much smaller profile than other vehicles. Due to the smaller profile it can be difficult to judge the speed and distance of an approaching motorcycle. Source: http://www.nhtsa.gov/planners/ShareTheRoad2008/emm/fact.doc (Continued on next slide.)
  15. Motorcycle Risks Motorcyclists Are at Risk from Other Drivers. After a crash, the drivers of other vehicles involved often say they never saw the motorcyclist and were unable to respond in time. In the event of a crash, a motorcyclist is much more vulnerable and in much greater danger physically than are other vehicle drivers. In fact, per vehicle mile traveled, NHTSA estimates that in 2008, motorcyclists were about 37 times more likely than passenger car occupants to die in a traffic crash. Motorcyclists however do pose the greatest risk to themselves.* Source: http://www.nhtsa.gov/planners/ShareTheRoad2008/emm/fact.doc
  16. Motorcycle Fatalities Motorcyclist Deaths Rising or Falling. In 2009, motorcycle rider fatalities decreased for the 1st year, following an 11 year increase. During 2009, 4,462 motorcyclists lost their lives in fatal highway crashes. That means motorcycle riders were involved in more than one out of eight of all U.S. road fatalities during 2009. 47 % of all fatalities in motorcycle crashes in 2008 involved another vehicle in addition to the motorcycle in the crash. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, motorcycles. DOT HS 811 159 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2009). Highlights of 2009 Motor Vehicle Crashes. DOT HS 811 363
  17. State Statistics Registrations are up Helmet use estimate Unlicensed motorcycle drivers Fatalities DUI Enforcement issues
  18. Kansas Licensed Motorcycle Drivers
  19. Kansas Motorcycle Fatalities
  20. Kansas Motorcyclist Fatalities – % Increase from 2000-2002 to 2005-2007
  21. Motorcycle Awareness THINK SPOT – WCSH/WLBZ
  22. MODULE 2

    MOTORCYCLE TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS
  23. Motorcycle Types & Characteristics
  24. AMA PSA Distracted video – courtesy of AMA PSA
  25. Traditional
  26. Cruiser
  27. Sport bike
  28. Touring
  29. Sport-Touring
  30. Dirt Bike
  31. Dual-Purpose
  32. Scooters
  33. Mopeds
  34. Sidecars
  35. Trikes XYZ123
  36. Classes of Street Motorcycles officers may encounter: Sport Bikes Street Bikes Cruiser Class Scooters
  37. Motorcycle Laws Endorse your sport – PSA – courtesy of Washington State Patrol
  38. MODULE 3

    SAFETY LAWS RELATED TO EQUIPMENT & OPERATION
  39. Motorcycle Moving Violations Motorcycle operators must obey the same rules of the road as all other drivers (with a few exceptions) Enforce these as you would any other violation KSA 8-1593: Rights and duties of persons riding motorcycles.Every person operating a motorcycle shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of any other vehicle under this act, except as provided in K.S.A. 8-1594 to 8-1598, inclusive, of this article and except as to those provisions of this act which by their nature can have no application.
  40. Definitions Motor Vehicles—Every vehicle, other than a motorized bicycle, which is self-propelled. Motorcycle—Any motor vehicle designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground, but excluding a tractor. Motor-Driven Cycles—Means every motorcycle, including every motor scooter, with a motor which produces not to exceed 5 brake horsepower, and every bicycle with motor attached.
  41. Definitions Cont. Motorized Bicycle—Means every device having two tandem wheels or three wheels which may be propelled by either human power or helper motor, or by both, and which has: (a) A motor which produces not more than 3.5 brake horsepower; (b) a cylinder capacity of not more than 130 cubic centimeters; (c) an automatic transmission; and (d) the capability of a maximum design speed of no more than 30 miles per hour except a low power cycle. If under 18 must wear a DOT helmet See KSA 8-1592a for more regulations Low Power Cycle—Every vehicle and every bicycle and tricycle with not to exceed one brake horsepower provided by battery in addition to human power.
  42. Motor-driven Cycles 8-1562: Special speed limitation on motor-driven cycles. No person shall operate any motor-driven cycle at any time mentioned in K.S.A. 8-1703 at a speed greater than thirty-five (35) miles per hour unless such motor-driven cycle is equipped with a head lamp or lamps which are adequate to reveal a person or vehicle at a distance of three hundred (300) feet ahead.
  43. Licensing One out of four motorcycle operators (25%) involved in fatal crashes in 2008 were operating their vehicles with invalid licenses at the time of the collision. 27 % of motorcycle operators involved in fatal traffic crashes had a previous speeding conviction. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, motorcycles. DOT HS 811 159
  44. CHECK OPERATOR’S LICENSE FOR PROPER ENDORSEMENT Operator requirements for a motorcycle endorsement Motorcyclists are required to have proper license and endorsement to operate. What is your state law?
  45. Motorcycle Endorsement Kansas All operators operating a MC registered in Kansas must have a class “M” endorsement (motorized bicycle can have a class c) To obtain a class M you must complete a written test, vision test, and a driving test. Class M Instructional Permit - can obtain at age 14, must complete vision and written test. Good for one year and can be renewed indefinitely. “The holder of the permit may operate a motorcycle at any time if accompanied by an adult who has a valid Class M license and who is riding a motorcycle in the general proximity of the permitee”
  46. CHECK REGISTRATION All motorcycles operated on a public highway must be… properly registered, and insured. Numbers on registration plate should match the registration certificate.
  47. CHECK INSURANCE CARD FOR PROOF OF INSURANCE Maintenance of financial responsibility Insurance required –Compulsory Liability (Minimum Limits)(25/50/10).
  48. CHECK VIN PLATE Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) Location of VIN plate Check plate – VIN structure Make sure not tampered with VIN should match registration www.ncib.org – ID Manual
  49. CHECK EQUIPMENT
  50. CHECK TIRES Check condition of wheels, tires and rims for any unsafe conditions Check tires for tread depth “It is unlawful for any person to operate a motor vehicle or combination of vehicles having one or more tires in an unsafe condition… A pneumatic tire is in an unsafe condition if it has: (1) Any part of the ply or cord exposed; (2) any bump, bulge or separation; (3) a tread design depth of less than 1/16 inch measured in any two or more adjacent tread grooves, exclusive of tie bars, or, for those tires with tread wear indicators worn to the level of the tread wear indicators in any two tread grooves; (4) a marking "not for highway use" or "for racing purposes only" or "unsafe for highway use"; (5) tread of sidewall cracks, cuts or snags deep enough to expose the body cord…; (7) …such other conditions as may be reasonably demonstrated to render it unsafe.
  51. Tread must be at least 1/16” deep
  52. A Lincoln penny can be used to check tire wear. Gauge is Lincoln’s head on penny as tread depth minimum.
  53. CHECK BODY OF MOTORCYCLE Check body items of motorcycle Check for any obvious defective part(s) Check for parts projecting from vehicle.
  54. CHECK FOOTRESTS Check foot rests Make sure they are securely fastened Are foot rests in proper location? Can an operator ride side-saddle?
  55. READY FOR PASSENGERS? If carrying passenger, check if equipped Is it designed to carry more than 1 person? Must be equipped with foot rests and seat for passengers (KSA 8-1597) Where can a passenger ride?
  56. CHECK HANDLEBARS Check handlebar height What does your state specify for height?
  57. DISPLAY OF REGISTRATION PLATE Check registration plate as it must be secure. Mounted horizontally or Is vertical mount permitted? The plate must be clean and clearly visible. Is plate in required position? Plate illuminated by white plate light? White plate light - visible at night to the rear.
  58. Plates lit from the top and bottom of a tail lamp.
  59. No plate lamp Lamp Housing 12”?? Examples of rear plate lighting and height Plates must be secure. Plates must be mounted at specific height requirements Plates are to be conspicuously displayed at the rear.
  60. CHECK LIGHTSKSA 8-17 When are headlights required? What distance must headlamp illuminate? Do the high and low beams work? Are turn signal lights/tail lights required?
  61. CHECK LIGHTS
  62. Motorcycle modulating headlamps are permitted Motorcycle headlamp modulation systems are allowed under FMVSS 108. No ticket for this. Do not mistake for wig-wag emergency lights. HEADLAMP / FRONT LIGHT
  63. Lighting Restrictions
  64. CHECK WINDSHIELD If equipped, check windscreen/windshield It should not obstruct or obscure the rider’s line of vision Is it secure?
  65. CHECK MIRRORS Check for rear view mirror(s) required KS Law-One on left side required It must permit a clear view to the rear.
  66. CHECK EXHAUST SYSTEM Exhaust must be original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or equivalent Many states prohibit altered pipes and straight pipes. Some States have noise restrictions on exhaust pipes. What is Kansas Law?
  67. Exhaust tube Fiberglass baffling Muffler body EXHAUST ANATOMY
  68. EXHAUST OEM Exhaust with baffle tube
  69. OEM Exhaust Aftermarket Exhaust
  70. Differences in thickness
  71. OEM Exhaust stamping
  72. CHECK HORN Check operation of the horn The horn is located on the left handlebar. It must work and be audible under normal conditions.
  73. Kansas Helmet Law Statute 8-1598: Operation of motorcycles; equipment required for operators and riders. (a) No person under the age of 18 years shall operate or ride upon a motorcycle or a motorized bicycle, unless wearing a helmet which complies with minimum guidelines established by the national highway traffic safety administration pursuant to the national traffic and motor vehicle safety act of 1966 for helmets designed for use by motorcyclists and other motor vehicle users. No helmet required 18 or older
  74. Remember to CHECK THE MOTORCYCLE HELMET! Helmets that are compliant - meet DOT Standard FMVSS No. 218 Helmets that are non-compliant
  75. Compliant vs. Non-Compliant Generally 3 pounds or more. Inner liner made of thick polystyrene foam no less than ¾” thick. No protrusions over 2/10 inches. Less than one pound. Thin or no padding. No manufacturer name.
  76. Biker Bar Video – Wear your helmet!
  77. CHECK FACE PROTECTION Does your state require face protection? Windshield or windscreen, Must be 10” height measured from center of handlebars, if no eyewear. (KSA 8-1598) Eye glasses Goggles, or a Protective face shield Is there a requirement that the glasses, goggles, or face shield have colorless lenses when operated at night? Other requirements?
  78. What are some laws pertaining to safe operation… Stopping at red lights? Dead Red
  79. SEATING POSITION Statute 8-1594: Operation of motorcycles. (a) A person operating a motorcycle shall ride only upon the permanent and regular seat attached thereto, and such operator shall not carry any other person nor shall any other person ride on a motorcycle, unless such motorcycle is designed to carry more than one (1) person, in which event a passenger may ride upon the permanent and regular seat if designed for two (2) persons, or upon another seat firmly attached to the motorcycle at the rear or side of the operator.       (b)   A person shall ride upon a motorcycle only while sitting astride the seat, facing forward, with one leg on each side of the motorcycle.       (c)   No person shall operate a motorcycle while carrying any package, bundle, or other article which prevents such person from keeping both hands on the handlebars.       (d)   No operator shall carry any person, nor shall any person ride, in a position that will interfere with the operation or control of the motorcycle or the view of the operator.
  80. LANE USE 8-1595: Same; roadways laned for traffic. (a) All motorcycles are entitled to full use of a lane, and no motor vehicle shall be driven in such a manner as to deprive any motorcycle of the full use of a lane. This subsection shall not apply to motorcycles operated two (2) abreast in a single lane.       (b)   The operator of a motorcycle shall not overtake and pass in the same lane occupied by the vehicle being overtaken.       (c)   No person shall operate a motorcycle between lanes of traffic or between adjacent lines or rows of vehicles.       (d)   Motorcycles shall not be operated more than two (2) abreast in a single lane.       (e)   Subsections (b) and (c) shall not apply to police officers in the performance of their official duties.
  81. CLINGING TO VEHICLES DOES YOUR STATE ALLOW CLINGING TO VEHICLES?
  82. WHEELS ON GROUND Some states prohibit wheelies Front wheel stoppies What is your state law?
  83. VT GHSP Video – Can you see me now? Wear it everytime you ride – NHTSA PSA
  84. MODULE 6

    DUI DETECTION
  85. Detection of DWI Motorcyclists
  86. DUI PSA
  87. Detection of DWI Motorcyclists
  88. Motorcycle DWI Detection Guide NHTSA has found that the following cues predicted impaired motorcycle operation. Excellent Cues (50% or greater probability) Drifting during turn or curve Trouble with dismount Trouble with balance at a stop Turning problems Inattentive to surroundings Inappropriate or unusual behavior Weaving
  89. Motorcycle DWI Detection Guide NHTSA has found that the following cues predicted impaired motorcycle operation. Good Cues (30 to 50% probability) Erratic movements while going straight Operating without lights at night Recklessness Following too closely Running stop light or sign Evasion Wrong way
  90. Detection of DWI Motorcyclists “The percentage with BAC .08 g/dL or above was highest for fatally injured motorcycle riders among two age groups, 40-44 (41 %) and 45-49 (41 %), followed by the 35-39 (36 %) age group.” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, motorcycles. DOT HS 811 159 DUI DETECTION VIDEO – SHOW HERE
  91. MODULE 4

    OFFICER & MOTORCYCLIST SAFETY
  92. Officer & Motorcyclist Safety Motorcycle gangs Stopping Motorcycles Pursuit Discussion Speed Enforcement
  93. Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs Motorcycle Clubs A motorcycle club (MC) is a group of people that ride motorcycles in organized activities. They may wear distinctive clothing to identify their club. Their primary activities involve the sport of motorcycling. Many motorcycle clubs are organized, have dues, and enjoy the camaraderie, education, rider training and socialization. Examples: Blue Knights, Red Knights, Harley Owners Group, Gold Wing Road Riders Association, etc.
  94. Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMGs) in the U.S. OMGs are organizations whose members use their motorcycle clubs as conduits for criminal enterprises. There are more than 300 active OMGs in the United States (U.S.) Ranging in size from single chapters with 5 or 6 members to hundreds of chapters with thousands of members worldwide. (http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/gangunit/about/omgangs.html)
  95. Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMGs) in the U.S. The Hells Angels Motorcycle Club, The Bandidos Motorcycle Club and The Outlaws Motorcycle Club These 3 OMGs conduct the majority of criminal activity linked to OMGs, i.e. especially activity relating to drug-trafficking and, cross-border drug smuggling. Global scope (http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/gangunit/about/omgangs.html)
  96. Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs Motorcycle Operator Profiling Awareness: The motorcycle is a popular primary means of transportation has grown in the past decade. More people are buying and riding motorcycles. Riders represent all facets of society. All races, genders and occupations are represented. There is no such thing as “the typical biker”. Remember that, “Violators” are defined by their actions not how they look.
  97. Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs Motorcycle Club: A motorcycle club is a group of people that ride motorcycles in organized activities. They may wear distinctive clothing to identify their club. Their primary activities involve the sport of motorcycling.
  98. Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs Criminal Street Gang: Three or more persons having a common identifying sign or symbol or an identifiable leadership The gang continuously or regularly associate in the commission of criminal activities.
  99. Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs Common misconceptions and beliefs: Sport Bike riders are speeders that ride dangerously. Bikers use narcotics, drink, raise hell and probably have outstanding warrants. Cruiser Class riders are the “station wagon” set of the motorcycle world. These “mom & pop” riders generally pose no threat.
  100. Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs Common misconceptions and beliefs: Motorcycle Clubs that “fly their colors” (wear their club jackets) are “outlaw bikers” Motorcycle Clubs disrespect law enforcement and are in effect “claiming new turf” by showing the colors. Bikers are generally lower income to middle class laborers. Bikers are generally juvenile delinquents and troublemakers.
  101. Motorist awareness– Courtesy of Texas PSA
  102. STRATEGIES FOR STOPPING What are safe strategies for stopping motorcycles?
  103. STRATEGIES FOR STOPPING Before engaging in the stop… Get registration plate number If you can, make sure the plate number matches vehicle description. Get full description of motorcycle, i.e. make, model, color, etc. Description of motorcyclist Utilize your in cruiser camera
  104. STRATEGIES FOR STOPPING What’s your department policy on traffic stops?
  105. Stopping Motorcycle Operators Reason for the stop What is the violation of the law? Instruct the rider to dismount the motorcycle Some have the rider remain astride the motorcycle with the kickstand up. Remain professional Deal with the violation
  106. Stopping Motorcycle Operators Motorcycle paperwork Registration paper and proof of insurance certificates stored on motorcycles. Under the seat Side compartments Saddlebags
  107. STRATEGIES FOR STOPPING DISCUSSION: What are your options if a motorcycle rider decides to run?
  108. DISCUSSION on PURSUIT Discuss concerns of motorcycle pursuits. Sport bike performance compared to cruiser. Does your department have a helicopter or fixed wing aircraft to aid in speed enforcement? Motorcycle Safety Checkpoints and the use of aerial speed enforcement to discourage pursuits and attempting to elude police.
  109. PURSUIT OPTIONS “Motorcycle Pursuit Story on KOMO” courtesy Washington SP
  110. PURSUIT POLICY Do you have a department policy on the pursuit of motorcycles? http://www.theiacp.org/tabid/299/Default.aspx?id=510&v=1
  111. SPEED ENFORCEMENT According to NHTSA, in 2008, 35 percent of all motorcycle crash fatalities involved speeding as a factor. Traffic enforcement efforts Target the speeding violator
  112. SPEED ENFORCEMENT Video – Sport bikes and speeds off the showroom floor
  113. MODULE 7

    MOTORCYCLE HELMETS
  114. Recommended Motorcycle Personal Protective Gear: Motorcycle helmets that meet DOT Standard Proper clothing (preferably retro-reflective), including: gloves, boots, long pants, and a durable long-sleeved jacket; and eye and face protection.
  115. All The Gear All The Time! VIDEO – All The Gear All the Time – courtesy of VT GHSP
  116. Motorcycle Helmets Next, we will cover the specifics of FMVSS No. 218, Motorcyle Helmets AKA: 49 CFR 571.218 What do you look for to determine the difference between a non-compliant helmet and a compliant helmet?
  117. FMVSS No. 218 The FMVSS No. 218 requirements included the following: impact attenuation, penetration resistance, retention, labeling, projections, peripheral vision.
  118. FMVSS No. 218 49 CFR 571.218 Must be DOT Approved Symbol Affixed to Outside Helmet Labeling
  119. FMVSS No. 218 HELMET LABELING Helmet Labeled with the following: Manufacturer's name or identification. Precise model designation. Size. Month and year of manufacture. This may be spelled out or abbreviated. June 2010 6/10 The symbol DOT sticker. Instructions to the purchaser.
  120. FMVSS No. 218 S5.5 Projections: A helmet shall not have any rigid projections inside its shell. Rigid projections outside any helmet's shell shall be limited to those required for operation of essential accessories, and shall not protrude more than 0.20 inch (5 mm).
  121. HELMETS VIDEO – How to choose the right helmet?
  122. Compliant and Non-Compliant Helmets How do you determine is a motorcycle helmet is compliant with FMVSS 218? Check for fake DOT symbols affixed to exterior of helmet. Check for labels stating “this is a novelty item.” Check exterior label meets U.S. DOT standard Sticker/symbol details size Location Contrasting color Sticker can easily be made by anyone Check for labels affixed by the manufacturer to interior of motorcycle helmet.
  123. Compliant and Non-Compliant Helmets Why is it important for LE officers to know and care whether a helmet is compliant? Motorcycle riders forfeit protection if counterfeit sticker. Knowingly Unknowingly Motorcycle fatality and injury prevention. Ability to enforce the law properly.
  124. Novelty and Certified Helmets Novelty Helmets Helmets Certified to AKA: Non-compliant helmets FMVSS No. 218 Photo source: NHTSA
  125. Next up, CRASH INVESTIGATION Pointers…
  126. MODULE 5

    CRASH INVESTIGATION
  127. Crash Data “Per vehicle mile traveled, motorcyclistsare about 37 times more likely thanpassenger car occupants to die ina traffic crash.”
  128. Response Establish Crash Scene Safety Treatment of Victims Thorough Search of Area for a passenger at every accident scene Sidecars become detached or passenger thrown Due to a head injury, a rider may not remember having a passenger Crash Response
  129. Crash Investigation Factors
  130. Crash Investigation Factors What are some motorcycle crash investigation procedures to consider for crash investigators?
  131. Crash Investigation Factors Examine Crash Pre-Crash maneuvers Crash maneuvers Post-Crash maneuvers
  132. Crash Investigation Factors Data Collected On-Scene: Vehicle Data Crash scene, environment Human factors
  133. Crash Investigation Factors Vehicle Data VIN, Make, Model, motor size – cc Mechanical factors Check tires What is condition of other vehicles?
  134. Crash Investigation Factors Crash scene / environment Roadway Traffic and controls / traffic control devices Weather View obstructions Roadway conditions and defects Evidence from the motorcycle / vehicles
  135. Crash Investigation Factors Human factors, injury causation Rider background data Rider training and licensing Rider motorcycle experience, street and off-highway Collision avoidance performance
  136. Crash Investigation Factors Human factors, injury causation (continued) Other vehicle driver background data Passenger contribution to crash causation Carrying cargo Alcohol and drug involvement Detailed helmet analysis Witnesses
  137. Crash Investigation Factors Crash or injury related cause factors Protection Vulnerability The body of the rider gives many clues. Check the helmet for damage, contact markings Type of markings on rider can help determine speed. Airborne Direction
  138. Crash Investigation Factors Helmet Examination Helmet’s Function Types of Helmets and Their Components Unapproved Helmets Helmet Evolution Why Inspect the Helmet? Motorcycle Helmet Inspection Process Internal Inspection of Disassembled Helmet
  139. Crash Investigation Factors Handling & maneuverability unique to M/C Counter Steering - Understanding the concept of “counter steering”. Turns/Cornering – pressing lean Following Distance Braking Ability Lane Position Blind Spots Passing and Being Passed Intersections
  140. Crash Investigation Factors Motorcycle Investigation Tips Document/photograph crash scene erasure marks flat spots on the tires Sprockets Examine type of gouge marks on ground High speed wobble alternating “eyebrow” like tire marks generally last for 10 to 15 feet before the bike goes down. Physical evidence on the motorcycle itself
  141. Crash Investigation Factors Motorcycle Investigation Tips Conspicuity is always a concern with motorcycles. Filament lamp exam. Since 1978, motorcycles have had automatic headlamps Headlamp check to determine if working Note what gear the motorcycle was in Note the radius of the bike’s tires
  142. What are the statistics?
  143. Reported Causes Of Crashes Speeding Failing to negotiate a corner Inattentiveness Perception failure on the part of the other vehicle (Left turns, not seeing the motorcyclist) Riding under the influence Inexperience
  144. Motorcycle Fatality
  145. MODULE 8

    PUBLIC EDUCATION EFFORTS & STAKEHOLDERS
  146. What every officer should know? National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety recommendations include: Rider education programs; Increase motorcyclists properly licensed; Reduce riders operating while impaired; Increase motorcyclists’ visibility; Increase helmet usage; Increase motorists’ awareness of motorcyclists. http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/00-NHT-212-motorycle/toc.html
  147. PUBLIC EDUCATIONWhat can we do? Best practices Motorcycle Training Rider Education Programs Enforcement Education Motorcyclist properly licensed Increased helmet usage No tolerance for Fake Helmets Counterfeit DOT Sticker enforcement
  148. PUBLIC EDUCATIONWhat can we do? Enforcement MV Stops Warning/Ticket Grounding of Vehicle
  149. PUBLIC EDUCATION Rider Education Programs
  150. PUBLIC EDUCATIONWhat can we do? DUI Enforcement Red Yellow Green campaign Storage containers Sharing Safety messages Public Service Announcements “PSAs” Motorcyclist visibility Motorcyclist PPE - All The Gear All The Time “ATGATT” Motorist developing motorcyclist awareness
  151. Motorist Awareness
  152. Motorcycle Awareness
  153. Motorist Awareness VIDEO – DRIVER’s EDUCATION
  154. Motorcycle Safety Checkpoints
  155. Motorcycle Safety Checkpoints Policy examples Safety considerations Set up Officer briefings Checklist for safety inspections
  156. Motorcycle Safety & Enforcement Motorcycle safety statistics Motorcycle types & characteristics Safety laws Officer & rider safety Crash investigation pointers DUI detection Motorcycle helmets Public education
  157. QUESTIONS ? 913-208-5714 bsully@sbcglobal.net www.nhtsa.gov Bill Sullivan NHTSA Law Enforcement Liaison
  158. Motorcycle Safety & Enforcement Training

    THANK YOU We hope you enjoyed the training!
  159. BE SAFE!