Himalayas • Highest mountains in the world • Mt. Everest is in Nepal
Ganges River • Begins in the Himalayas and flows more than 1500 miles across the northern plains of India • It’s a source of water and fish • Farmers use it to irrigate their crops • Hindus believe the Ganges is sacred • They come to bathe in it to purify their souls • They also drink it…
Ancient Culture India has one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world • The ancient city of Mohenjo Daro dates to 2500 BC
India History • 1500 BC: Aryans ruled India • 320 BC: Mauryan Empire unites most of India • 1200 AD: Muslims form a Kingdomat Delhi • 1490 AD: Europeans arrive in India to trade • 1800 AD: East India Company = British own half of India • 1857 AD: Sepoys start a rebellionagainst foreign rule • 1900 AD: India demands independence • 1947: Gandhi’s efforts help free India from Britain; The Partition
Cultural Diffusion – Britain to India • Indians bought many British goods. • To ensure good travel routes, the British built ports, railroads and roads • Brought English language, education, law and ideas about government to India
Cultural Diffusion – India to Britain • India was the “jewel in the crown” of the British Empire • Indian products like tea, cotton, and jewels flowed into Britain and became popular.
Mahatma Gandhi • The British treated the Indians as second-class citizens, which made many Indians talk of independence • Movement led by Mohandas Gandhi • He used peaceful protest techniques (boycotts, hunger strikes, marches) ~influenced Martin Luther King, Jr. • It took a lot of years, but it worked • India became independent in 1947.
“Partition” Muslim Indians want their own state • 1947 – Britain splits the colony in 2: • India is for Hindus • Pakistan is for Muslims • Kashmir region is divided between them • Many people were living in the wrong state for their religion = Mass chaos when everyone tried to get to their preferred state • 1948 – Gandhi is shot and killed by Hindu extremist • Religious tension is still an issue in India today
Kashmir Region • In the years following Partition, disputes have arisen between India and Pakistan over control of the Kashmir region • A couple of times, it has come to a nuclear standoff • Both countries have nuclear weapons – could get ugly
India Culture Culture is influenced by history!!! Ethnicities: • 72% are Aryans • 25% are Dravidians • 3% are other Cultures and Languages: • There are over 1000 languages • Most speak Hindi (30%) • English is spoken in politics
Taj Mahal • Completed in 1648 • Built by Shah Jahan as a mausoleum for his favorite wife • One of the most recognizable buildings in the world
India Culture Culture is influenced by history!!! Religions: • 80% are Hindu (involves reincarnation, karma, and dharma) • Islam 13%, Christianity 2%, Sikhism 2% Other 3%(Buddhism &Jainism) • Influences • The Aryans, Muslims, and Europeans have all greatly affected India Reincarnation- soul is reborn again into different forms Karma- positive more negative force caused by a person’s action Dharma- importance of doing one’s duties according to one’s station in life Caste- group of people who were born in to position in a society
“Caste System” Caste- group of people who were born in to position in a society People are born, married, and die in different ‘castes’ or social groups
Caste System Simulation • Red – Brahmans, you are to decide on 5 basic religious beliefs for our community. You may not converse with any lower group, except to have laborers do something for you like sharpen pencils, write letters, etc. • Blue – Kshatriayas, you must make 5 laws for our society to live by. You cannot talk with any other group except to ask the slaves to do work for you. • Green – Vaishyas, you must produce something during this time and advertise it to the class. You cannot directly contact other any other group except slaves. • Orange – You are the laborers and must do what any other group commands you to do. • Black – Untouchables (Outcaste), you must make sure to sit on the floor and not touch anything that a caste member would touch. You may not participate in any class discussions. You are not to touch a member of any caste. • If an untouchable happens to touch you or an object of yours, you must pray to have that curse removed from you and/or offer a sacrifice.
“Caste System” • This system originated in Hinduism, but now affects all of India • Legally not allowed, but politically accepted • Government is not allowed to approve, but they do not disapprove
Girl thrown on fire for being 'lowest class‘ CNN April 30, 2008 • A man, incensed that a six-year-old girl chose to walk through a path reserved for upper caste villagers, pushed her into burning embers, police in north India said Wednesday…The girl is a Dalit, or an "untouchable," according to India's traditional caste system. India's constitution outlaws caste-based discrimination, and barriers have broken down in large cities. Prejudice, however, persists in some rural areas of the country. The girl was walking with her mother down a path in the city of Mathura when she was accosted (grabbed) by a man in his late teens, said [the]police superintendent. "He scolded them both and pushed her," Chaturvedi said. The girl fell about three to four feet into pile of burning embers by the side of the road. The girl remained in critical condition Wednesday. The man confessed to the crime and was charged with attempted murder…The assault took place in India's Uttar Pradesh state [which] is governed by Mayawati, a woman who goes by one name and is India's most powerful Dalit politician. Her Bahujan Samaj Party seeks to get more political representation for Dalits, who are considered so low in the social order that they don't even rank among the four classes that make up the caste system… They number about 250 million in India, about 25 percent of the population, according to the Colorado, U.S.-based Dalit Freedom Network. "Dalits are seen to pollute higher caste people if they come in touch with them, hence the 'untouchables,'" the group says on its Web site. "If a higher caste Hindu is touched by, or even had a Dalit's shadow fall across them, they consider themselves to be polluted and have to go through a rigorous series of rituals to be cleansed."
Bollywood!!!Bollywood Song • The Indian film industry is enormous and films almost always include song and dance Aishwarya Rai
Most Indians have kept the traditional “sari”. You find it on everyday people as well as in the fashion world. Most people in other countries have given up traditional outfits except for on special occasions.
India Government Republic comprised of three branches: the executive, the legislative and the judiciary. The 15th President : Her Excellency Pratibha Devisingh Patil (first woman -2007.) Major Cities: • New Delhi (capital city) • Mumbia(known as Bombay, 5th largest city in the world) • and Kolkata (also spelled Calcutta 8th largest city in the world)
India Economy *Jute- plant used to make rope Resources Important to Economy: • Rice, Wheat, Tea, Sugar Cane, Mangoes, Peanuts, Jute Main Export: • Textiles (clothing) Major Jobs: • Cottage Industry • Call Centers • Commercial Manufacturing Economy is influenced by geography!!!
“Cottage Industry” • Production of goods takes place in the homes • Includes the family and any hired workers • Generally unorganized (Small Scale Industry) • Use conventional methods, not machinery
“Outsourcing” • Many jobs in the U.S. are being “outsourced” to India, especially the high tech city of Bangalore • Many of these jobs are call centers for technical help
India Challenges Challenges are influenced by politics!!! • Poverty • Huge population growth • 1 out of 6 people (world) lives in India • + 1 billion • Border issues with China • Hindus and Muslims fight • 70% of India’s surface water is polluted because of defective sewer system • Deforestation, overgrazing, and soil erosion
Indian Perimeter History • 1500 BC: Aryans ruled the subcontinent • 1500-1700 AD: Muslim Mughal Empire ruled the subcontinent • 1948 AD: Sri Lanka gains independent • 1949 AD: Bhutan gains independence • 1965 AD: Maldives gains independence • 1971 AD: War causes East Pakistan (Bangladesh) to break away from West Pakistan
Indian Perimeter Culture Nepal Ethnicity: Aryan ancestry Language: Napali Religion: 75% Buddhist 25% Hindu Pakistan Ethnicity: Many different cultures Language: Urdu (similar to Hindi) ہیلو.یہ تم سے ملنے کے لئے اچھا ہے. Religion: Muslim Bhutan Ethnicity: Bhote, Nepal, tribal Religion: 75% Buddhist and 25% Hindu Oct 13, 2011 Wedding of King of Bhutan Culture is influenced by history!!! Bangladesh Ethnicity: Bengalis Language: Bengali Religion: Muslim Sri Lanka Ethnicity: Sinhalese Language: SInhalese Religion: Buddhist Maldives Religion: Muslim
Indian Perimeter Economy Economy is influenced by geography!!! Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka Resources Important to Economy: jute, rice, tea Major Job: Farming Nepal and Bhutan Resource Important to Economy: Timber Major Job: Farming Jute Plant & Jute Rope
Indian Perimeter Challenges Challenges are influenced by politics!!! • Disputewith India over boundaries • Military trying to overthrow government • Rivalry between rich and poor • Ethnic conflicts • Trash and litter