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Human Digestion Anatomy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Human Digestion Anatomy

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  1. Human Digestion Anatomy

  2. Mouth/Pharynx • Teeth chew food into smaller pieces • Tongue pushes chewed food to throat

  3. Salivary glands • Secrete saliva to moisten food • Begins the digestion of starches

  4. Epiglottis • Flap that closes windpipe when swallowing • Helps prevent choking

  5. Trachea • Windpipe, not part of digestive system

  6. Esophagus • Food tube, connects mouth to stomach

  7. Stomach • Muscular pouch that mixes food • Digestive juices begin breakdown of proteins

  8. Pyloric sphincter • Do-nut shaped muscle between stomach and duodenum • Controls entry of food mass into small intestines • Ground up food is called chyme

  9. Liver • Distribution center for nutrients • Makes bile

  10. Gall bladder • Stores bile for fat breakdown

  11. Duodenum of small intestines • 1st 12-14 inches of small intestines • Final digestion of food occurs • Bile/fats Pancreatic juices/all food types

  12. Pancreas • Makes enzymes that break down all type of foods

  13. Small Intestines • Nutrient molecules absorbed into blood stream by villi and sent to liver • Ave. length 23 feet

  14. Appendix • No real function; can become infected and removed by surgery

  15. A possible scenario for the progression from a fully functional cecum to the current human appendix was put forth by Charles Darwin.[13] He suggested that the appendix was used for digesting leaves as primates. It may be a vestigial organ of ancient humans that has degraded to nearly nothing over the course of evolution. The cecum enables it to host bacteria that specifically help to break down cellulose. Human ancestors may have also relied upon this system when they lived on a diet rich in foliage. As people began to eat more easily digested foods, they may have become less reliant on cellulose-rich plants for energy. As the cecum became less necessary for digestion allelesbecame more frequent and the cecum continued to shrink. After millions of years, the once-necessary cecum degraded to be the appendix of today

  16. Large Intestines • Water reabsorbed back into blood • Bacteria feed on undigested matter as it moves to rectum

  17. Eyes, Nose, Tongue • Senses of sight , smell, and taste help to determine food choices and safety

  18. Rectum • Stores solid waste until ready for removal

  19. Anus • End of digestive tract; solid waste leaves body • Process of elimination is called defecation