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Human Anatomy. Central Nervous System Part I The Brain. CNS. Consists of 2 anatomical components. Brain Spinal cord. The Brain. 3 subdivisions A. Cerebrum B. Cerebellum Brainstem Additional Structures. Subdivisions of the Brain. A. Cerebrum B. Cerebellum Brainstem.

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human anatomy

Human Anatomy

CentralNervous System

Part I

The Brain

slide2
CNS
  • Consists of 2 anatomical components

Brain

Spinal

cord

the brain
The Brain
  • 3 subdivisions

A. Cerebrum

B. Cerebellum

  • Brainstem
  • Additional Structures
subdivisions of the brain
Subdivisions of the Brain
  • A. Cerebrum
  • B. Cerebellum
  • Brainstem
sagittal section of brain
Sagittal Section of Brain
  • A. Cerebrum
  • B. Cerebellum
  • Brainstem
  • Additional
  • structures
a the cerebrum
A. The Cerebrum
  • Surface forms a series of elevated ridges – gyri (gyrus, sng.)
  • Surface also has shallow depressions – sulci (sulcus, sng.)
cerebral hemispheres
Cerebral Hemispheres
  • Cerebrum consists

of two cerebral

hemispheres

Left Right

lobes of the cerebrum14
Lobes of the Cerebrum
  • Four lobes from the surface
four lobes of cerebrum that can be seen on the lateral surface
Four Lobes of Cerebrum(that can be seen on the lateral surface)
  • Frontal
  • Parietal
  • Occipital
  • Temporal
1 frontal lobe
1. Frontal Lobe
  • Forms the anterior portion of the cerebral hemispheres
  • Posterior boundary is central sulcus
  • Inferior boundary is lateral sulcus
  • Most posterior gyrus is the precentral gyrus
  • Precentral gyrus is primarily concerned with voluntary motor (skeletal muscles) function. It is also known as the primary motor cortex of the brain.
precentral gyrus
Precentral Gyrus

Precentral

Gyrus

Central

Sulcus

broca s speech area motor speech area
Broca’s Speech Area(motor speech area)

Controls

muscles

neccesary for

vocalization

(words)

Usually found

in left frontal

lobe

frontal lobe23
Frontal Lobe

Frontal eye field

Cognitive activities –

judgement, reasoning,

planning

See Clinical Views on

pp. 459 & 461

2 parietal lobe
2. Parietal Lobe
  • Posterior to the central sulcus
  • Anterior to the occipital lobe
  • Most anterior gyrus is the postcentral gyrus
  • Postcentral gyrus receives information from the body such as touch, pressure, pain and temperature. It is also known as the primary somatosensory cortex.
postcentral gyrus
Postcentral gyrus

Central sulcus

Postcentral

gyrus

parietal lobe29
Parietal Lobe

Wernicke’s area – understanding speech and formulating

words to express thoughts and emotions

3 occipital lobe
3. Occipital Lobe
  • Forms the posterior region of each cerebral hemisphere
  • Responsible for processing incoming visual information and storing visual memories
  • Known as the visual cortex
occipital lobe32
Occipital Lobe

Occipital

lobe

4 temporal lobe
4. Temporal Lobe
  • Inferior to lateral sulcus
  • Involved with hearing, interpreting speech and language and smell
  • Known as the auditory cortex
b the cerebellum
B. The Cerebellum
  • 2 cerebellar hemispheres
  • Coordinates and “fine-tunes” skeletal muscle movements
  • Ensures the pattern of skeletal muscle contractions leads to smooth, coordinated movements
  • Stores memories of previously learned patterns of movement (writing, piano playing, ping pong, Gameboy)
  • Cerebrum sends “rough draft” of which movement it wants and cerebellum coordinates and “fine-tunes” the command.
  • Adjusts skeletal muscle activity to maintain equilibrium and posture
effects of alcohol and drugs on the cerebellum
Effects of alcohol and drugson the cerebellum
  • Disturbance of gait
  • Loss of balance and posture
  • Inability to touch your finger to your nose with your eyes closed….lack of proper proprioceptive information
c brainstem
C. Brainstem
  • Consists of the following regions:
  • Mesencephalon
  • Pons
  • Medulla oblongata
  • Brainstem is the most primitive part of the brain.
mesencephalon
Mesencephalon
  • Roof is made up of 4 “bumps” called the corpora quadrigemina (4)
  • Superior colliculi (2) – visual reflex centers, help track objects within a visual field and coordinates skeletal muscles in order to keep object in visual field
  • Inferior colliculi (2) – audio reflex centers, involve reflex turning of head in the direction of a sound….BANG!
2 pons
2. Pons
  • Anterior surface of brainstem
  • Contains nerve pathways

Brain Spinal cord

3 medulla oblongata
3. Medulla oblongata
  • Most inferior part of the brainstem and is continuous with the spinal cord
  • Medulla ends and spinal cord begins at the foramen magnum
  • Contains several autonomic centers that control the following functions:
  • Cardiac center – controls heart rate and strength of contraction
  • Vasomotor center – controls blood pressure by regulating constriction or relaxation of arteriole walls
  • Respiratory center –controls rate of respiration
medulla oblongata48
Medulla oblongata
  • Descending axons (motor) cross over to the other side in the medulla oblongata
  • Ascending axons (sensory) cross over to the other side in the medulla oblongata
  • Therefore, a stroke (CVA) on one side of the brain will affect the body on the opposite side
d additional structures in the brain
D. Additional Structures in the Brain
  • Corpus callosum
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
1 corpus callosum
1. Corpus callosum
  • A physical connection between the 2 cerebral hemispheres
  • A pathway of communication between the 2 cerebral hemispheres
  • Comprised mainly of myelinated axons traveling from one hemisphere to the other hemisphere
2 thalamus
2. Thalamus
  • Serves as a processing and final relay point for sensory information going to the cerebrum
  • Used when you are busy trying to filter out visual and auditory input to get the right information needed to get you on task
  • Sensory thalamus cerebrum
3 hypothalamus
3. Hypothalamus
  • Inferior to the thalamus
  • CEO of ANS
  • CEO of endocrine system (hormones)
  • Regulates body temperature (thermostat)
  • Controls emotional behavior, eating and water intake
  • Regulates sleep-wake (circadian) rhythms
the meninges
The Meninges
  • Consists of 3 layers of connective tissue that surround the brain and spinal cord
  • Functions as a shock absorber to prevent contact w/ surrounding bone (skull and vertebrae)
  • From superficial to deep:
  • Dura mater
  • Arachnoid mater
  • Pia mater
1 dura mater
1. Dura mater
  • Most superficial
  • 2 layers
  • Periosteal – in contact with bone
  • Meningeal – deeper of the 2 layers, in contact with arachnoid mater
2 arachnoid mater
2. Arachnoid mater
  • Middle layer, resembles a spider web
  • Comprised of collagen and elastin fibers
3 pia mater
3. Pia mater
  • Deepest layer, tightly adhered to brain
epidural and subdural hemorrhages
Epidural and SubduralHemorrhages
  • Epidural
  • Bleeding between skull and endosteal layer of meninges
  • Source of blood is usually torn artery
  • Artery pressure is high, vein pressure is not as high
  • Blood builds up in epidural space
  • Causes compression of brain
  • Presses brainstem against occipital bone
2 subdural hemorrhage
2. Subdural Hemorrhage
  • Source of blood is usually from torn vein
  • Vein pressure is not high
  • Not as acute (not rapid)
ventricles of the brain
Ventricles of the Brain
  • Fluid-filled cavities within the brain
  • Filled with CSF (cerebral spinal fluid)
  • Store CSF – do not make it
  • 4 ventricles
ventricles of the brain66
Ventricles of the Brain
  • 2 lateral ventricles
  • 3rd ventricle
  • 4th ventricle
  • Mesencephalic

aqueduct

  • All 4 ventricles

are connected

and filled with

CSF

ventricles of the brain67
Ventricles of the Brain
  • 2 lateral ventricles
  • 3rd ventricle
  • 4th ventricle
  • Mesencephalic

aqueduct

  • All 4 ventricles

are connected

and filled with

CSF

cerebral spinal fluid csf
Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Liquid similar to plasma
  • “floats” the brain inside skull
  • Protects brain by serving as a cushion from sudden movements
  • Transports chemical messages and nutrients and removes waste products to circulatory system