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Human Anatomy. The Integument System. Function(s). Physical protection Thermoregulation Excretion Synthesis of vitamin D 3. Structure of Skin. 2 layers – epidermis and dermis. A. Epidermis. Consists only of epithelial cells Avascular – no blood supply No nerve supply

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human anatomy

Human Anatomy

The Integument System

function s
Function(s)
  • Physical protection
  • Thermoregulation
  • Excretion
  • Synthesis of vitamin D3
structure of skin
Structure of Skin

2 layers – epidermis and dermis

a epidermis
A. Epidermis
  • Consists only of epithelial cells
  • Avascular – no blood supply
  • No nerve supply
  • 5 distinct layers of epithelial cells
1 stratum germinativum
1. Stratum Germinativum
  • Deepest layer, in contact with dermis
  • Single layer of cells
  • Only layer of epidermis capable of cell division
  • Contain melanocytes
melanocytes2
Melanocytes
  • Capable of producing the brown pigment, melanin
  • Melanin can absorb energy from ultraviolet (UV) light
  • UV light contains high energy photons that can damage DNA – mutations
  • Melanin can prevent damage to DNA, helps to prevent skin cancer
2 stratum spinosum
2. Stratum Spinosum
  • Several layers thick
  • Cells of this layer begin to produce keratin
  • Keratin is a water-insoluble protein that protects the body from water
3 stratum granulosum
3. Stratum Granulosum
  • Multilayer and cells become compressed
  • Keratin crystallizes into granuoles within the cytoplasm
  • Cells are metabolically dead
4 stratum lucidum
4. Stratum Lucidum
  • Clear layer of cells
  • Only present in thick skin
  • Cells nothing more than a bag of keratin
5 stratum corneum
5. Stratum Corneum
  • Multiple layers of flattened, dead cells
  • Number of layers depends on region of the body
  • More friction, more layers of cells
accessory structures of the integument
Accessory Structuresof the Integument
  • Hair follicles
  • Oil and sweat glands
  • Nails
skin color
Skin Color
  • Is determined by 3 pigments
  • Hemoglobin – red pigment within rbc
  • Melanin – brown pigment in melanocytes
  • Carotene – orange-yellow pigment found in both epidermal cells and dermal fat cells
b dermis
B. Dermis
  • Consists of other 3 tissue types
  • CT
  • Muscle
  • Nervous
  • Has blood supply and nerves
dermis1
Dermis
  • CT adds collagen and elastic fibers which give strength and stretch properties
dermis2
Dermis

2. Muscle – arrector pili m. which is attached to shaft of hair follicle

dermis3
Dermis

3. Nervous – detects light touch, stretch, deep pressure,vibration and temperature