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Chapter 3. Disks and Formatting. Outcomes. Describe the structure of a disk Differentiate between internal and external commands Use the FORMAT command with various fixed and variable parameters Use LABEL and VOL commands. Disk Formatting. Physical Formatting

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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Disks and Formatting

G. DeRoest


Outcomes
Outcomes

  • Describe the structure of a disk

  • Differentiate between internal and external commands

  • Use the FORMAT command with various fixed and variable parameters

  • Use LABEL and VOL commands

G. DeRoest



Disk formatting
Disk Formatting

  • Physical Formatting

    • Sequentially numbered tracks and sectors are created

  • Logical Formatting

    • File system organization to keep track of files stored on the disk

G. DeRoest


Chapter 3

Physical FORMATTING

512 BYTES

G. DeRoest


Chapter 3

000

001

010

011

100

G. DeRoest


Chapter 3

Logical FORMATTING

Cluster

G. DeRoest


Fat cluster size
FAT Cluster Size

G. DeRoest


A file
A File

011001110101000011111100000000000000000000011110101000101101010101010010100011111010101000101000111111000

G. DeRoest


A file1
A File

011001110101000011111100000000000000000000011110101000101101010101010010100011111010101000101000111111000

G. DeRoest


Disk formatting1
Disk Formatting

  • Sector - 512 bytes of floppy disk space

  • Cluster – 1 or more sectors grouped together for access by the file system

  • Cluster overhang – space remaining within a cluster, not used by a saved file

G. DeRoest


Cluster overhang
Cluster Overhang

312 bytes of wasted space

200 byte file

512 byte cluster

G. DeRoest


Chapter 3

Boot Record

Root Directory

FAT #1

FAT #2

Data Storage

G. DeRoest



Fat vfat fat32
FAT, VFAT, FAT32

  • File Allocation Table

    • 65,536 clusters max

    • 2.1 GB disk partition

    • 512 root directory entries

  • Virtual FAT

    • Windows 95

    • Supporting long file names

  • 32 bit FAT

    • Windows 95 B , Windows 98

    • 2 terabyte disk partition

    • 64,000+ root directory entries

G. DeRoest


Fat components
FAT Components

G. DeRoest


Practical fat
Practical FAT

G. DeRoest


Chapter 3
NTFS

  • Secure file system

  • More efficient storage

  • Faster access

  • Journaling provides better recovery

  • File compression and encryption

  • Quotas

G. DeRoest


Chapter 3
NTFS

G. DeRoest


Chapter 3
NTFS

G. DeRoest



Hard disk organization
Hard Disk Organization

Primary 1

Primary 2

Primary 3

Primary 4

Extended Partition

MBR

512 bytes

Logical Partitions

Boot Sector

G. DeRoest


Format com
FORMAT.COM

  • External command

  • Located at C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\FORMAT.COM

G. DeRoest


Format com1
FORMAT.COM /?

Formats a disk for use with Windows 2000, XP, Vista.

FORMAT volume [/FS:file-system] [/V:label] [/Q] [/A:size] [/C] [/X]FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q] [/F:size]FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q] [/T:tracks /N:sectors]FORMAT volume [/V:label] [/Q] [/1] [/4]FORMAT volume [/Q] [/1] [/4] [/8]

volume - Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon), mount point, or volume name.

/FS:filesystem Specifies the type of the file system (FAT, FAT32, or NTFS).

/V:labelSpecifies the volume label.

/Q Performs a quick format.

/C Files created on the new volume will be compressed by default.

/X Forces the volume to dismount first if necessary. All opened handles to the volume would no longer be valid.

/A:size Overrides the default allocation unit size. Default settings are strongly recommended for general use.NTFS supports 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16K, 32K, 64K.FAT supports 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16K, 32K, 64K, (128K, 256K for sector size > 512 bytes).FAT32 supports 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16K, 32K, 64K, (128K, 256K for sector size > 512 bytes). Note that the FAT and FAT32 files systems impose the below restrictions on the number of clusters on a volume:

FAT: Number of clusters <= 65526 FAT32: 65526 < Number of clusters < 268435446

Format will immediately stop processing if it decides that the above requirements cannot be met using the specified cluster size.

NTFS compression is not supported for allocation unit sizes above 4096.

/F:sizeSpecifies the size of the floppy disk to format (160, 180, 320, 360, 640, 720, 1.2, 1.23, 1.44, 2.88, or 20.8).

/T:tracksSpecifies the number of tracks per disk side.

/N:sectorsSpecifies the number of sectors per track.

/1 Formats a single side of a floppy disk.

/4 Formats a 5.25-inch 360K floppy disk in a high-density drive.

/8 Formats eight sectors per track.

G. DeRoest


Format com2
FORMAT.COM

C:\> FORMAT E:

C:\> FORMAT E: /Q

C:\> FORMAT E: /V:CIS140

C:\> FORMAT E: /FS:FAT32

C:\> FORMAT E: /U -- Discontinued

G. DeRoest


Chapter 3
VOL

Displays the disk volume label and serial number, if they exist.

VOL [drive:]

C:\> VOL

C:\> VOL C:

C:\> VOL B: -- Error

G. DeRoest


Label
LABEL

Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk.

LABEL [drive:][label]

C:\> LABEL E:

C:\> LABEL E:DATA

C:\> LABEL E:DATA DISK

G. DeRoest