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Girding for War: The North & the South. 1861 - 1865. President of the Disunited States of America. Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861 7 states had already succeeded, 8 more were trying to decide Inaugural address – there would be no conflict unless the South provoked it.

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president of the disunited states of america
President of the Disunited States of America
  • Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861
    • 7 states had already succeeded, 8 more were trying to decide
    • Inaugural address – there would be no conflict unless the South provoked it
a split in the union
A Split in the Union?
  • Split brought up questions about the sharing of the national debt & the allocation of federal territories
  • Split would please European countries:
    • US was the only major display of democracy in the Western Hemisphere
    • Monroe Doctrine could be broken
sc assails fort sumter
SC Assails Fort Sumter
  • South seized all arsenals, mints, & other public property within their territory
  • Fort Sumter
    • Occupied by Northern troops who needed supplies
lincoln s plan
Lincoln’s Plan
  • Lincoln decided to send supplies to troops
    • promised Governor Pickens(SC) that he was not sending more men or weapons
  • South demanded surrender of Fort Sumter
    • Grounds for war if North sent supplies
the war begins april 12 1861
The War Begins (April 12, 1861)
  • South fired on Fort Sumter
    • 34 hour bombardment- no lives lost
  • Northern troops surrendered
  • The Civil War had begun
remember fort sumter
“Remember Fort Sumter”
  • Provoked the North to fight
    • Gen. Scott Commander of the Army (75 yrs. old)
  • April 14, 1861 – Lincoln called for 75,000 union troops
  • April 19 & 27, 1861 - ordered a blockade of Southern ports
  • 4 more states seceded
    • VA, Ark., Tenn., & NC map p. 447
  • Capital of Confederacy moved from Montgomery to Richmond
the valuable border states map page 447
The Valuable Border Statesmap page 447
  • Border States
    • MO, KY, MD, Del, & later WV
      • WV split from VA in 1861 over secession
    • MD, MO, & KY would almost double the manufacturing capacity of the South & increase by nearly half its supply of horses & mules
    • Ohio River – Cumberland & Tennessee Rivers was where much of the Confederacy’s grain, gunpowder, & iron was produced
lincoln deals with the border states
Lincoln deals with the Border States
  • Lincoln:
    • In MD declared marital law & sent in troops
    • Sent federal troops to WV & MO
    • He declared publicly that he was not fighting to free slaves
    • Declared that his goal was to get the Union back together
    • Indian Territory mainly sided with the South
brother s blood
Brother’s Blood
  • Many brothers fought against each other
    • Particularly in the border states
  • Northerners fought on the side of the South and vice versa
    • Senator Crittenden’s sons fought on opposite sides
    • Lincoln’s wife had 4 brothers who fought for the Confederacy
advantages strengths
South

Fighting defensively

on familiar territory

Strong support

Strong military leadership ****

Southerners were well trained

Didn’t have to win the war

Shortage of supplies

North

Economy*****

Large population

22 million to 9 million (3.5 were slaves)

Immigrants

Industry

Abundant resources

Shipping

Railway system

Abraham Lincoln

Advantages/ Strengths
disadvantages weaknesses
South

Small population

Economy

Few factories

Few railroads

Belief in states’ rights/ government lacked power

Lack of supplies

North

Had to invade the South

Public opinion was divided/ support was shaky

Northerners were not as experienced as Southerners

Disadvantages/ Weaknesses
dethroning king cotton
Dethroning King Cotton
  • South depended on foreign intervention
    • didn’t get it
    • Many Europeans were pro-North & anti-slavery
  • Shortage of cotton during war?
    • England & France had a surplus
    • As North won Southern territory, they sent cotton & food to Europe
    • India & Egypt upped their cotton production
    • **Result** – Europe needed more wheat & corn from the North than cotton from the South
the decisiveness of diplomacy
The Decisiveness of Diplomacy
  • Crisis
    • 1861 – Union warship stopped the British mail steamer theTrent & forcibly removed two Confederate diplomats bound for Europe
    • Lincoln released the prisoners & tension cooled
the alabama
The Alabama
  • British build ships for the Confederacy (unarmed)
    • 1862 – the Alabama went to the Portuguese Azores & took on weapons & crew from Britain
      • Never actually arrived in the South
      • Destroyed in 1864 off the coast of France
  • Charles Francis Adams
    • persuaded Britain not to build any more ships for the Confederacy
    • Could be used against England in the future
foreign flare ups
Foreign Flare-Ups
  • Britain had two Laird rams
    • 2 Confederate warships that could destroy wooden Union ships
    • Britain decided to use ships in its Royal Navy
  • Near Canada
    • Confederate agents plotted to burn down American cities
    • Mini-armies raised by British-hating Irish-Americans sent to Canada
  • Napoleon III installed Austrian Archduke Maximilian as emperor of Mexico
president davis vs president lincoln
President Davis vs. President Lincoln
  • Problems for the South:
    • Gave states the ability to secede in the future (from the Confederacy)
    • Getting Southern states to send troops to help other states was difficult
  • J. Davis – never very popular
  • A. Lincoln – benefit of leading an established government
limitations on wartime liberties
Limitations on Wartime Liberties
  • Lincoln
    • Illegally proclaimed a blockade
    • Increased the size of the army & sent troops
    • Advancement of $2 million to 3 private citizens for war purposes
    • Suspended habeas corpus
    • Intimidation of voters in border states
    • Justification: actions weren’t permanent & were needed to preserve the Union
  • South refused to sacrifice state’s rights & therefore lost the war
volunteers draftees the north
Volunteers & Draftees: The North
  • 1863 - Congress passed the first conscription law
    • Angered the poor because rich could hire a substitute by paying $300 to Congress
    • Riots broke out – New York City Draft Riot – 1863
    • Volunteers manned more than 90% of the Union army
      • Later money was offered for service when volunteers became scarce
      • Many deserters
the south
The South
  • Had to resort to a draft nearly a year before the North
  • Also included privileges for the rich
    • Those who owned 20+ slaves were exempt from the draft
the economic stresses of war
The Economic Stresses of War
  • North - Morrill Tariff Act
    • Increased tariff rates by about 5-10%
    • Later increased more
  • Treasury issued green-backed paper money
    • Money was unstable & sank to as low as 39 cents per gold dollar
  • Treasury sold war bonds
  • Runaway inflation
    • 9000% inflation rate in the South
    • 80% for the Union
national banking system
National Banking System
  • Created to establish a standard bank-note currency
    • Banks that joined could buy government bonds & issue sound paper money
  • 1st step towards a unified national banking network
the north s economic boom
The North’s Economic Boom
  • Emerged from the war more prosperous than before
    • A millionaire class was born
  • Many Union suppliers used shoddy equipment in their supplies
  • Sizes for clothing were invented
  • Reaper helped feed millions
  • 1859 – discovery of petroleum oil sent people to Pennsylvania
women in war times
Women in War Times
  • Women gained new advances:
    • Took jobs left behind by men
    • Some posed as men & fought in the war
  • Clara Barton & Dorothea Dix
    • Helped transform nursing to a respectable profession
  • Sally Tompkins
    • Ran an infirmary for wounded in Richmond
    • Received rank as Captain from Davis
a crushed cotton kingdom
A Crushed Cotton Kingdom
  • South was ruined by the war
    • Transportation collapsed
    • Supplies became scarce
    • End of war, South claimed only 12% of the national wealth
      • Pre war – 30%
    • Per capita income –2/5 that of Northerners
      • Pre war – 2/3 of Northerners
war aims strategies
South

Defensive strategy

Expected Britain & France to pressure the North so cotton supply would be restored

North

Blockade of Southern ports

Gain control of Mississippi River

Capture Richmond, Virginia

War Aims & Strategies
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