Beginning of the Civil War Mr. May’s U.S. History Class 7/17/2012
Causes of the Civil War • Regional Differences • North – Mechanized Farming, Industrial Economy (factories, railroads, canals, telegraph lines, etc. • South – Agrarian (farming), cottage industry, & slave labor • Slavery • Slavery was abolished in the North during the early 1800s • Southern economy ran on slave labor • Slaves accounted for almost 40% of the South’s population.
Causes of the Civil War (cont.) • “Bleeding Kansas” • Result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 – established popular sovereignty • Fight over whether Kansas should be slave or free • Abolitionists victorious • Brooks beats Sumner • Dred Scott Decision (1856) • Raid on Harper’s Ferry (1859) • Raid led by abolitionist John Brown • Goal: lead an armed uprising of the South’s slaves • Robert E. Lee captures Brown • Brown executed, leads to a media circus over slavery
The Election of 1860 • Candidates: Abraham Lincoln (Republican), Stephen A. Douglas (Democrat), John C. Breckinridge (Southern Democrat), & John Bell (Constitutional Union) • Lincoln wins the election with only 40% of the popular vote (popular in the North) • South angered with Lincoln’s election
Secession • 1860 election leads to the “Secession Winter” • 12/20/60 – South Carolina becomes first state to secede • Followed by MS, FL, & AL. Then GA, LA, & TX • 2/4/61 – Confederate States of America formed • VA, AK, TN, & NC join after the firing on Fort Sumter
Fort Sumter • Confederate States seize Union armories in the South • Maj. Robert Anderson takes control of Fort Sumter for the Union • P. G. T. Beauregard orders bombardment of the fort on 4/12/61 • Anderson surrenders a day later • Marked the beginning of the Civil War
1st Bull Run • First major battle of the war • Union Forces led by Irvin McDowell; Confederates led by Joseph E. Johnston & P. G. T. Beauregard • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson turns the tide of battle • Union forces broken, run back to Washington
What’s Next • Union defeat ends the hope for a quick ending to the war • Both sides build up their forces, the Union reorganizes • 1862 – escalation • War in the West • The Peninsula, Antietam, & Fredericksburg • Emancipation