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The Beginning of the Cold War. Events From 1946-1960. Cold War Post WWII to 1990 – time period of increasing tensions between the US and USSR Soviet Interests Security – control all countries between Germany and the Soviet Union Communism superior to Capitalism

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the beginning of the cold war

The Beginning of the Cold War

Events From 1946-1960

clash of interests

Cold War

    • Post WWII to 1990 – time period of increasing tensions between the US and USSR
  • Soviet Interests
    • Security – control all countries between Germany and the Soviet Union
    • Communism superior to Capitalism
    • Suspicious of capitalism – saw it as the source of conflict and a threat to communism
  • US Interests
    • Increase economic growth around the world – including Germany
    • Capitalism superior to Communism
    • Suspicious of communism – wanted to promote democracy, individual rights and capitalism
Clash of Interests
yalta conference

USSR – Joseph Stalin

  • US – Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Great Britain – Winston Churchill
  • Germany divided into 4 zones of occupation
  • Germany would pay reparations for causing the war
Yalta Conference
yalta conference2

FDR dies – Harry Truman becomes US president

  • USSR fails to follow agreements at Yalta – tensions increase
Yalta Conference
truman takes control1

Other issues at Potsdam

    • Declaration of Liberated Europe not upheld – USSR creates satellite nations (nations which contained Soviet-imposed communist governments)
  • Communist satellite nations increase – iron curtain (division of communist nations of Eastern Europe and the West) descends on Europe
Truman Takes Control
europe after potsdam
Europe divided after WWII amongst the Soviet Satellite States of Eastern Europe and the Western European Democracies.

Iron Curtain = Dividing line in Europe between the two powers

Europe after Potsdam
us policy of containment

US Policy of Containment

Chapter 26 Section 2

containing communism
Containing Communism
  • USSR behavior? Why?
  • George Kennan (US diplomat in Moscow) writes the Long Telegram
    • Russia’s insecurity and fear of the West – reason why it would be impossible to reach agreements with Russia
  • Kennan proposes containment (keeping communism within its present territory through diplomatic, economic, and military actions)
containing communism1
Containing Communism
  • Soviets Invade Iran and the US use military action to intimidate USSR
  • Truman Doctrine – Truman requests $400 million to fight Soviet aggression in Turkey and Greece
  • Marshall Plan– US would give aid to Europe to rebuilt after WWII – designed to decrease the appeal of communism
the berlin crisis
The Berlin Crisis
  • US, Britain, and France combine their zones in Berlin and allow West Berlin to have its own government
  • In response, The Soviets block all road and rail traffic into East Germany, hoping to force the Americans to renegotiate West Berlin’s status
  • Truman sends long range bombers to Berlin with atomic weapons.
the berlin crisis1
The Berlin Crisis
  • Berlin Airlift – eleven months of food, medicine, and coal to West Berlin
  • US joins NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) – military alliance with Western Europe
  • Soviets respond to NATO with the creation of the Warsaw Pact – Military alliance between Soviets and Eastern Europe
the cold war spreads east
The Cold War Spreads East
  • Nationalist and Communist forces battle in a civil war for control over China – Communists win creating the People’s Republic of China
  • China and USSR sign a treaty of friendship and alliance in 1950
the cold war spreads east1
The Cold War Spreads East
  • US keeps Communist China out of the UN, but allows Taiwan to stay
  • US sees Japan, not China, as its ally in defending Asia from communism
korean war
Korean War
  • While disarming Japanese troops in Korea after WWII, the USSR stayed in North Korea, while the US stayed in South Korea
korean war1
Korean War
  • General MacArthur criticizes Truman for not using more force and is then fired
  • Truman committed to limited war (war fought to obtain a limited objective)
  • Major turning point in the Cold War: US began a major military buildup to fight communism.
the new red scare

The New Red Scare

Chapter 26 Section 3

a new red scare
A New Red Scare
  • 1945 – Americans fear subversion (an effort to secretly weaken a society and overthrow its government)
  • 1947 –Loyalty Review Program which screened federal employees for their loyalty
    • Leads to more American fears of communism
  • FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover urges the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) to hold public hearings on Communist subversion
  • 1948 – Whittaker Chambers testifies that government officials were also Communist spies
    • Alger Hiss – accused, denied, and was then convicted of perjury (lying under oath)
a new red scare1
A New Red Scare
  • Soviets create an atomic bomb
  • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg who were charged with heading a Soviet spy ring
    • Rosenberg couple were executed in 1953 though some believed them to be innocent
  • 1946 – American cryptographers crack the Soviet spy code under Project Verona – becomes public knowledge in 1995 (indicts the Rosenberg couple with strong evidence.)
a conspiracy so immense
“A Conspiracy So Immense”
  • Senator Joseph R McCarthy – 205 Communists in Gov.
  • McCarthy denounces the Democratic party as corrupt politicians and protectors of Communists – He wins a seat in the Senate
  • 1950 – McCarran Act –illegal to “combine, conspire or agree with any other person to perform any act which would substantially contribute to the establishment of a totalitarian government”
a conspiracy so immense1
“A Conspiracy So Immense”
  • McCarthy accused and searched for Communists based on poor, little, or no evidence and fear.
  • McCarthyism: to ruined reputations without proper evidence
  • Army-McCarthy hearings – McCarthy accuses army of employing communists – McCarthy looses popularity
life during the cold war era
Life During the Cold War Era
  • Communism and the threat of the atomic bomb dominated life in the 1950s
  • Fallout (radiation left over from an atomic blast)
  • Americans began to build fallout shelters
  • Time of contrast:
    • Images of the Cold War fear filled popular culture
    • The country enjoyed immense postwar prosperity and optimism
eisenhower s policies

Eisenhower’s Policies

Chapter 26 Section 4

eisenhower s new look
Eisenhower’s New Look
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower – WWII hero – wins the 1952 election against Adlai Stephenson
  • How to win the Cold War:
    • Strong military + strong economy
  • More atomic weapons (conventional weapons too expensive) = “New Look” defense policy
  • Massive retaliation – threaten the use of nuclear weapons on any Communist state who tried to take territory through force
  • B-52s, ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles), and Submarines could be used to deliver nuclear weapons
  • October 4, 1957 – USSR launches 1st satellite into space known as Sputnik.
    • US feels they are falling behind in missile technology
  • Congress creates NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and passes the National Defense Education Act (NDEA)
brinksmanship in action
Brinksmanship in Action
  • The Korean War armistice was signed after Eisenhower threatened to use nuclear weapons – stopped communism from spreading
  • 1954 – China threatens to take over two islands from the Chinese Nationalists in Taiwan – Eisenhower threatens nuclear conflict and the Chinese retreat
  • Eisenhower uses the threat of nuclear power to stop the Soviets from attacking during the Suez Canal Crisis.
fighting communism
Fighting Communism
  • Brinksmanship would not work against internal Communist revolutions
  • Eisenhower creates the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) to use covert (hidden) operations to stop Communism
  • CIA operations took place in mostly developing nations
    • Iran and Guatemala in the 1950s
  • Nikita Khrushchev becomes prime minister after Stalin’s death
  • Eastern European countries revolt against their communist-imposed governments
  • Khrushchev uses military force to put down revolts
continuing tensions
Continuing Tensions
  • Eisenhower and Khrushchev meet at a summit in Paris to alleviate tensions
  • Summit stopped after Khrushchev finds out about a U2 spy plane that is shot down over Russia (Francis Gary Powers)
  • Eisenhower warns of the military-industrial complex (relationship between the military establishment and the defense industry) in a democracy