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Beginning of the Cold War. Containment and Beyond. What is a/the Cold War?. A Cold War is a state of diplomatic hostility between two superpowers, in this case the US/USSR. These two superpowers will never actually fight each other therefore it is considered a cold war. The Post-War World.
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Beginning of the Cold War Containment and Beyond
What is a/the Cold War? • A Cold War is a state of diplomatic hostility between two superpowers, in this case the US/USSR. These two superpowers will never actually fight each other therefore it is considered a cold war.
The Post-War World • After World War II, the US and the USSR were the two world leaders.
The Post-War World • As many nations were re-building or becoming independent after World War II, there was a competition between these two countries to gain influence over as many of these new nations as possible.
Satellite Nations • To stand up against the US policies, the Soviet Union tried to gain as many satellite nations as possible.
Satellite Nations • Satellite Nations are nations that are technically independent, but under close control from the Soviet Union. They are also communist and have the same policies as the USSR.
The “Iron Curtain” (March 5, 1946) • During a speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, Winston Churchill declared that an “Iron Curtain” had descended across Europe.
The “Iron Curtain” • The Iron Curtain is a metaphor for the divide between democratic western Europe and communist eastern Europe. No actual curtain exists. This saying and the speech Winston Churchill made became a symbol for the break down in relations between the US/western Europe and the USSR/eastern Europe.
Containment • The US takes on the policy of containment or trying to block the Soviet influence elsewhere in the world.
Containment • Containment policies meant the US tried to create alliances with countries against the Soviet Union and tried to stop countries from becoming communist.
Truman Doctrine (March 12, 1947) • US President Harry Truman wanted to influence new/developing countries to not support communism.
Truman Doctrine • The Truman Doctrine was his plan stating that the United States would provide “support” to countries that were not communist or were resisting communism.
Marshall Plan (June 5, 1947) • Going along with the Truman Doctrine the Marshall Plan said the United States would provide food, machines, and other necessities for countries that were struggling after WW2.
Marshall Plan • Many people argued that while these plans wouldn’t support communism they could support dictators.
Divided Berlin • At the Yalta/Potsdam Conferences, it was decided that Germany would be divided into four occupied sections.
Divided Berlin • Berlin is in the Soviet sector of Germany. Even though Berlin is in eastern Germany, the city itself was divided into an eastern part under Soviet control and a western part under European/American control.
Berlin Airlift • The US, Britain, and France decided they no longer needed to be occupying their zones of Germany and Berlin in 1948. They withdrew so Germany could unite. • The Soviet Union refused to withdraw from their zone. Since Berlin was in the Soviet zone and also divided, they cut off all supplies (food, water, and traffic) to the western part of Berlin.
Berlin Airlift • The Soviet Union hoped that this would make the other countries that had zones in Germany scared and reoccupy their zones. • The US and Britain countered the blockade by flying supplies into the western side of Berlin. The Soviets looked like fools and eventually lifted their blockade in May 1949.