AP World History New Worlds: The Americas and Oceania - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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AP World History New Worlds: The Americas and Oceania

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  1. AP World HistoryNew Worlds: The Americas and Oceania Chapter 25

  2. I. Conquest of the New World

  3. II. Conquest of the Aztec Empire • Hernan Cortez & 450 men conquer the Aztec empire, 1519-1521 • How were 450 Spanish able to conquer the mighty Aztecs? • Better Weapons ( Steel Swords, muskets, cannons, horses) • Other indigenous people hated the Aztecs ( Dona Marina) • Disease

  4. The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs vs. Fernando Cortés Montezuma II

  5. Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conquistadores OfficialEuropeanColony! Missionaries PermanentSettlers

  6. The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation

  7. III. Conquest of the Incas • Francisco Pizzaro (Conqueror of the Incas) • Led a small band of men and toppled the Inca empire, 1532-1533 • Held Inca ruler Atahualpa for ransom, then strangled him & decapitated him

  8. IV Labor Systems of the New World • Encomienda- • land grants to Spanish settlers with total control over local people & land

  9. Chapter Twenty-Five:New Worlds: The Americas and Oceania • Colonial Society in the Americas • Sugar and Slavery in Portuguese Brazil • The Engenho Sugar mill in colonial Brazil

  10. IV. Labor Systems • Mita or repartmiento system- Spanish crown required 1/7 of male population to work for 4 months in Spanish mines or haciendas • Debt Peonage- Spanish landowners advanced loans to native peoples to buy seed, tools, and supplies in exchange for labor

  11. V. Sugar & Slavery in Brazil • The Portuguese in Brazil depended on _Sugar_________. • Engenho- term to describe the complex land, buildings, animals, , equipment, tools capital, & technical skills needed to make molasses& refined sugar from sugar cane • Small pox devastated the indigenous population. • Portuguese imported ___________________ for cane & sugar production

  12. Significance of Silver • Major resource of income for Spanish crown • Manila Galleons take it to the Pacific rim for trading • Very popular with Chinese markets • Also trade in the Atlantic basin

  13. The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Our Lady of Guadalupe Guadalajara Cathedral Spanish Mission

  14. The Virgin of Guadalupe

  15. Treasuresfrom the Americas!

  16. The Colonial Class System Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Mulattos Native Indians Black Slaves

  17. Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill

  18. Which of the following was most lethal for native Americans during early encounters with Europeans? • Firearms • Mounted troops • Smallpox • Steel swords

  19. Conquistadors were • Entrepreneurs who financed Spain’s voyages of exploration • Spanish conquerors of New World territories, such as Cortes and Pizarro • Exporters of American food crops back to Europe • Native American slaves sent back to Europe

  20. From highest to lowest, the racial caste’s in Spain’s colonies were: • Creoles, mestizos, & natives • Peninsulares, mestizos, & creoles • Peninsulares, creoles, slaves, & mestizos • Peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, natives, & slaves