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Intro to World History. Pre-History to 1500. Introduction. History is necessary to human survival Must know where we came from Regardless of beliefs, history begins 2 million BC. Dawn of History. Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Age “Lucy” 1959 by Leakey's in Tanzania

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Intro to World History


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Intro to World History Pre-History to 1500

    2. Introduction • History is necessary to human survival • Must know where we came from • Regardless of beliefs, history begins 2 million BC

    3. Dawn of History • Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Age • “Lucy” 1959 by Leakey's in Tanzania • First people were hunters and gatherers • Animism – spirits in everything • Neolithic Agricultural Revolution – farming and domestication of animals • Lead to cities and civilizations • Civilizations grew along rivers

    4. Features of Civilization • Organized Government • Complex Religions • Job Specialization • Social Classes • Arts and Architecture • Public Works • Writing

    5. Egypt • Along the Nile River with yearly floods • Pharaohs seen as gods, ruled in dynasties • Religion – polytheism, gods for nature • Afterlife – Osiris, mummification, tombs • Pyramids used as tombs • Hieroglyphics written on papyrus

    6. Sumer and Babylon • Fertile crescent – Tigris and Euphrates • City-states ruled by hierarchy • Built ziggurats for religion • Cuneiform – wedge writing • Sargon – 1st empire builder • Hammurabi – code, 1st written laws • Phoenicians create the alphabet

    7. Judaism • Nomadic people lead by Abraham • 1000 BC King David of Israel • Monotheistic – one true God • Chosen people as covenant with God • Patriarchal society – male lead • Ten commandments given to Moses • Waiting for messiah

    8. India • Grew around Indus River Valley • Polytheistic with mother goddess • Aryan society: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas • Vedas – story of early Indian civilizations

    9. China • Grew around Huang He (Yellow) River • Dynasties – Shang, Zhou • Religion – polytheism, ancestor worship • Mandate of Heaven – divine right to rule • Feudal state • Silk making, first books

    10. Greece – Early People • Minoan Civilization • Island of Crete in Aegean Sea • King Minos and Palace at Knossos • Disappeared, volcano and tidal wave • Mycenae • Sea traders, moved ideas and items • 1250 B.C. Trojan War • Fall of Troy same time as Mycenaean disappearance

    11. Greece – Rise of City-States • Mountainous peninsula • Polis – city • Acropolis – high city, temples to gods • Monarchy – King or queen rule • Aristocracy – rule by landowning elite • Oligarchy – Small, powerful, business elite rule • Military • Iron weapons • Phalanx – formation of armed foot soldiers

    12. Greece - Sparta • Government • 2 kings and council of elders, assembly of citizens • From birth, trained for military • 7 – boys sent to barracks, training, beaten • 20 – marry, 30 – move out & join assembly • Women – trained, ran estates & business • Isolated from trade, looked down on wealth

    13. Greece - Athens • Aristocracy became democracy • Democracy – Government by the people • Set up legislature – lawmaking body • Cared more about art, philosophy than war • Good navy • Women – secluded in homes, family and kids • Education was important above all else • Greeks believed all others were barbarians

    14. Greece - Religion • Polytheistic • Many gods and goddesses • Zeus – leader, God of Gods and Humans • Many children became others • Used to explain nature • Temples built, prayers & ceremonies to placate them

    15. Greece and Its Glory • Philosophers – Socrates, Plato, Aristotle • Developed rhetoric and logic • Architecture – columns • Sculpture of gods, goddesses, athletes, politicians • Drama – Tragedy and Comedy • Writers – Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey

    16. Alexander the Great • King Philip killed at daughter’s wedding • Conquered lands: Greece to India, Germany to Egypt • Spread cultures, mixed together = Hellenistic • Named over 20 cities after himself • Conquering more than ruling • Traveled 10,000 miles, men made him turn around • Died 3 days after return

    17. Rome – The Beginning • Republic – government of the people • Patricians – Upper class, landholding, made laws • Consuls – 2 patricians, ran daily government • Dictator – Time of war, complete control • Plebeians – farmers, merchants, bulk of population • Tribunes – Plebeian officials • Veto – can block laws harmful to plebeians

    18. Roman Society • Women given more power, held jobs, business • Boys and girls taught to read and write • Religions – similar to Greek but different names • Citizen-Soldiers were part of legion (5000) • Provided own weapons with no pay • Conquered lands treated with justice • Built roads, connected empire • People united under Roman rule

    19. Rome – Empire Building • Imperialism – Establishing control over foreign lands • Corruption common, caused declines • Reformers - Julius Caesar • Popular Military General • Public works jobs, reorganized government of providences • Created calendar – Julian Calendar • Killed by best friend, Brutus • Census – count people • Good and Bad emperors • Pax Romana – Roman Peace • Bread and Circuses

    20. Roman Achievement • Literature – Aeneid, Satirize – make fun of • History – Livy, kept track of events • Philosophy – Emperor Marcus Aurelius – stoic • Art – Sculpture, Mosaic – picture made of tiles • Architecture – Huge temples, arch and columns • Engineering – built aqueducts • Law – Civil Law and Law of Nations

    21. Christianity • Early Religions tolerated by Romans • Most were polytheistic, like Romans • Jews rejected Roman religion, persecuted, revolt, fled • Jesus born in 4 B.C. • Apostles and him spread message of peace, love • Deeply rooted in Judaism • Romans crucified him for rebellion • Seen as religion for all – everyone welcome

    22. Roman Decline • 26 emperors in 50 years • Several tried to help with reforms • Invasion by several groups of nomads hurt Rome • Causes • Military – Mercenaries used, little loyalty • Political – Corruption, divided empire • Economic – Taxes, slaves ran away, economic downfall • Social – Lack of patriotism and devotion • Long, slow decline • Lead to Byzantine Empire (Western Rome)

    23. The Americas - Maya • Olmecs – oldest civilization, not on a river • Mayas • Yucatan peninsula • Tikal – huge temples and city • Each city had ruling chief • Priests had highest power • Most people were farmers – corn, cotton, squash • Writing system, accurate time, 365 day calendar, zero • 900 A.D. began to abandon cities, don’t know why

    24. Aztec Civilization • Late 1200s – Eagle on cactus with snake in beak • Tenochtitlan – city in middle of lake • Chinampas – floating gardens • Conquered other tribes and demanded tribute • Single ruler – royalty, blood letting • Nobles, warriors, commoners • Massive human sacrifice, used conquered people • Calendar, surgery, schools • Hernan Cortes destroyed in 1519

    25. Early People of Peru • Chavin • Worshipped jaguar/man • Lived high in the Andes • Mochica • Built roads, irrigation systems • Beautiful pottery • Nazca • Glyphs – etched lines in the ground • Lines, shapes – part of calendar?

    26. The Inca • Pachacuti – founder and first Sapa Inca 1438 • In Cuzco, Sapa lived like god, Queen – Coya • Quipu – knotted string collection for records • 12,000 miles of road, runners for messages • Only runners and army could use roads • Farmed on terraces • Best metal workers • Had anesthesia and brain surgery • Polytheistic, temples to gods • Destroyed by Pizarro in 1533

    27. North American Natives • Crossed Bering Land Bridge, moved south • Diverse cultures based on environment • Arctic, Coastal, Plains, Woodlands, Southwest • Iroquois League – 5 nations banded together • Hitting peak when Europeans arrived

    28. The Middle Ages • Europe carved up by Germanic Tribes, Franks • Charlemagne united Europe • Wanted “Second Rome”, extended Christianity • Feudalism – system of rule among lords and vassals • Lord gave vassal a fief thru feudal contract • Vassal got land and protection, Lord got food • Knights – began at 7, protect castles • Castles were self-sufficient • Peasants poor, hard life, 35

    29. The Medieval Church • Church was the center of towns and lives • Cannon Law – churches laws • Monastery – school, copied manuscripts, hospital • Papal Supremacy – Pope had more power than kings • Persecuted Jews – Anti-Semitism

    30. Medieval Economy • Iron plows, horse harnesses – agriculture • 3 Field system – corn, wheat, fallow = more food • New trade routes – India and China • Barter rather than money • Guilds – group of same kind of artisans • Set prices, recipes, hours • Apprentice, Journeyman, Master

    31. High Middle Ages • Royal families ruled England and France • Kings conflicted with church over power • Magna Carta – nobles forced King John to sign • King is not exempt from laws • Parliament established

    32. The Crusades • “God wills it” • 200 years • Take back Jerusalem from Muslims • Rape, pillage, kill along way – got rich • Economic expansion and grew churches power

    33. Into the Darkness • The Black Death • Rats, fleas spread Bubonic Plague • Spread thru Europe via trade • 25 million people died • No workers, blamed Jews & witches, inflation – 100 years • Church Upheaval • Popes lived rich lives • Church accused of corruption • Hundred Years’ War • England vs. France in 1337 to 1453 • Joan of Arc and Longbow

    34. Muslim Civilization • Prophet Muhammad had vision = Islam • Muslim Civilization was very advanced • Art, architecture and literature was distinct

    35. Mongols • Genghiz Khan crossed Persia • Burned and looted • Converted to Islam • Nomadic people • Golden Horde attacked Russia in 1236 • Ruled Russia for 240 years • Fierce conquerors but tolerant rulers

    36. Silk Road • International trade network • Roads built by Chinese emperor Wu Di • 4000 miles from China to Middle East • Towns along the road provided markets and lodging