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The Atlantic World, 1492-1800. I. Colonizing the Americas. Began in 1492 – Columbus sets sail in search of route to India Never reached India, “discovered” Americas for Spain, opened “New World” to Europe Spain first to began turning lands of Central and South America into colonies :

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i colonizing the americas
I. Colonizing the Americas
  • Began in 1492 – Columbus sets sail in search of route to India
    • Never reached India, “discovered” Americas for Spain, opened “New World” to Europe
  • Spain first to began turning lands of Central and South America into colonies:
    • Lands that are controlled by another nation
  • Explorers that helped lead the way
    • Pedro Alvares Cabral – claimed land that becomes Brazil for Portuguese
    • Ferdinand Magellan – sailed south around South America, sailed west through Pacific Ocean
      • First voyage to circumnavigate the globe
i continued
I. Continued…
  • Conquistadors
    • Superior weapons, diseases from Old World (small pox, measles, typhus) gave advantage
    • Hernando Cortes – defeated Aztecs in 1521
    • Francisco Pizarro – conquered Inca Empire in 1532
    • Francisco de Coronado – headed north to present-day United States in search of gold
  • Settling In
    • Spanish imposed their culture onto native populations as permanent settlements were created
      • Forced conversion to Catholicism, loss of languages/traditional customs, introduction of feudal-like social/economic system
    • System of encomiendas enforced – natives were forced to work for Spanish landholders – endured harsh conditions, abuse
    • Large mestizo population develops – Spanish + native American
i continued1
I. Continued…
  • Spain becomes richest, most powerful nation in 16th century
    • Increased its wealth and military, increased territorial holdings into North America
  • Catholic priests became leaders in colonizing and converting in North America
    • Many, however, pushed for better treatment of native peoples
    • Encomienda system abolished in 1542
  • Native rebellions
    • Starting as early as Columbus’ arrival, natives attempted to resist conquest andcolonization
      • Example: 1680 – Pueblo Indians organized a rebellion that pushed the Spanish out of southwest U.S. for 12 years
ii settlement of north america
II. Settlement of North America
  • England, France, and the Netherlands began competing with Spain for power in North America
  • France set up in modern-day Canada, known then as New France
    • Began moving south – by early 1700s, claimed what is now midwestern U.S., all the way to Louisiana
  • England’s first colony was founded in 1607 – Jamestown, Virginia
    • Opened the door to more settlers, stayed mostly in east
  • The Dutch establish New Netherland, profiting from the fur trade
    • Was slow to attract settlers, eventually lost territory to England
ii continued
II. Continued…
  • Series of battles between European powers dominated the 17th and 18th centuries
    • 1664 – English drive out Dutch (surrendered without firing a shot)
    • 1754 – French and Indian War began
      • Was a part of a larger world conflict called the Seven Years’ War
      • French were defeated in 1763, England claimed all their territory in N. America
  • Native Americans suffered more from disease than from warfare
    • Europeans brought “Old World” diseases, like measles and small pox, that natives had no built-in resistance to
    • Millions died of epidemics throughout theAmericas
exit ticket
Exit Ticket

Answer the following questions using complete sentences:

  • What gave the Spanish conquistadors an advantage over the native Americans?
  • How did life for many native Americans change after the creation of permanent settlements by the Spanish?
  • Who were the four main European powers in competition for North America?
iii atlantic slave trade
III. Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Slavery had already existed in Africa for centuries
    • Slavery among African societies common, represented wealth
    • Slaves had some rights, even held positions of authority
    • Arab merchants traded slaves to Asia beginning in 8th century
  • As Native American population declined, the need for other sources of labor increased in the Americas
    • Portuguese and Spanish first to engage in African slave trade
  • Between 16th and 19th centuries, more than 12 million Africans shipped to Americas
    • Estimated 10-20% died along the way (probably much higher)
      • Middle Passage – name of slave voyage to Americas
        • Overcrowded, unsanitary conditions
        • Often led to death, suicide, rebellions
    • Mostly men were shipped (tipped balance of African population)
    • Local African rulers worked with Europeans for trade of slaves/goods
iii continued
III. Continued…
  • Directly linked to plantation and mining economies of Americas
    • Triangular trade – slaves to America,|raw materials to Europe, European goods to Africa, cycle repeats itself
  • Impact of the Slave Trade
    • Population shift in favor of women in many areas
    • Conflicts between African societies increased – competition for European goods
    • Economies of American colonies may not have survived without the work of the slaves
    • Cultural blending – mix of African culture with that of the Americas/Europe – especially religions (Ex: vodun in Haiti)
iii continued1
III. Continued…
  • Slave resistance and rebellion
    • Kept cultural heritage alive as a way of resisting
    • Worked slowly, broke tools, ran away
    • Open revolts occurred throughout Americas
      • Examples: Haitian independence movement, Nat Turner in U.S.
  • End of Slave Trade
    • Abolition of the slave trade came from a variety of reasons:
      • Enlightenment thinking
      • Christian revivalism/humanitarianism
      • Industrial Revolution – less emphasis on agriculture labor
      • Slave trade less important/profitable than trade of other goods
exit ticket1
EXIT TICKET

Answer the following questions using complete sentences.

  • Why did the Europeans turn to Africa as a source of cheap labor?
  • What is the Triangular Trade?
  • Explain two ways in which the slave trade impacted societies.
  • Provide two reasons that led to the end of the slave trade.
iv global economy
IV. Global Economy
  • Colonization of Americas created more opportunities for trade and commerce
    • A truly global economy emerged as goods (and people) are shipped worldwide
  • Columbian Exchange – global transfer of foods, plants, animals during colonization of the Americas
    • Agricultural products found in New World made their way to the Old World for first time, and vice versa
      • Ex: corn, potatoes, tomatoes to O.W.; horses, sugar, and rice to N.W.
      • Played huge role in boosting world population
    • Diseases also part of exchange (mainly to the Americas)
iv continued
IV. Continued…
  • Global Economic Revolution
    • Global trade created new economic systems and focus on wealth in growing nations
    • Mercantilism – belief that a country’s power depended on its wealth
      • Goal was to obtain as much wealth as possible
      • Wealth was obtained through export/trade of goods
      • Colonies became important for nations to become self-sufficient and grow wealthy (access to raw materials, labor)
    • Capitalism – economic system based on private ownership and the investment of resources for profit
      • Individuals, not just governments and kings, became very wealthy and powerful through trade
exit ticket2
EXIT TICKET

Answer the following questions using COMPLETE SENTENCES:

  • Provide two reasons that led to the end of the slave trade.
  • Describe the Columbian Exchange. Name one item that went to the New World and one item that went to the Old World.
  • What is mercantilism?
  • What is capitalism?