SWM-TECHNOLOGIES Reports of Kurapov – Panov Group. Before treatment (reference sample). After treatment with SWM technology. Microstructure of 110 Г13Л in cast state. SWM-TECHNOLOGIES IN METALLURGY.
Reports of Kurapov – Panov Group
with SWM technology
Microstructure of 110Г13Л in cast state
Developers of the technology:
V.F PANOV, PhD
The principle diagram of the generator is shown on Fig. 1. The generator itself is directional antenna device with adjusting focus of the emission (wave emitter) which is fed by converter – forming modulator unit. Trial model of the generator was named “Electromagnetic Modulator ORSK-M Type”. The method of melt treatment with generator and design of the emitter are patented. The size of main working zone of the generator (focal zone) has a diameter of 0.3 m. Wave treatment is being made during whole time of melting (0.5 – 1 hour). Magnetic field induction in working zone does not exceed 1 Gs. Strength of electromagnetic field is about 2 kV/m. Equivalent noise level created by the generator does not exceed 36 dB, including ultrasound band.
As a primary source of feeding the generator standard signals oscillator GSS-40 was used. Electromagnetic shield of the generator was connected to AC mains.
Fig.1 Diagram of wave treatment of the melt
1 – melting furnace with metal (ladle); 2 – directional emitter (wave channel) of SWM-generator; 3 – emitting element; 4 – forming modulating unit with modifier; 5 – power supply; 6 – wave emission. The focus F of the emitter is oriented into the volume of the melt. Wave treatment of the melt is being made through the wall of the furnace.
From 2004 to 2009 this plant had been continuously
operating at JSC “Tochlit” (Motovilikha Plants) in steel
It was found, that the character of generator’s influence on the melts is significantly depending on the material of the substance placed into the resonance chamber of modulating unit, i.e. on the modulating substance, which is virtual or passive modifier of the metal. Traditional in metallurgy alloying and modifying chemical elements were used as modulators: magnesium, manganese, rare-earth elements etc. Modulator served as a filter, modulating emission spectrum of the generator. Treatment of ferrous metals with SWM generator was carried out in two main modes:
I) – low-carbon and middle-carbon steels (with carbon content ≤ 0.8%) were treated using the modulator with austenite stabilizing elements: manganese + nickel + niobium.
II) – high-carbon steels and cast irons (with carbon content ≥0.8%) were treated using the modulator with increasing the dissolvent of carbon in iron: magnesium + manganese + rare-earth elements. The signal of Nuclear Magnetic Resonanse of modifying substance wad fed into forming modulator unitat that time.
Wave emitter of SWM generator was mounted outside of metallurgical furnace, working zone of the generator was oriented into the volume of the melt.
The treatment of melt had being made through the wall of the metallurgical furnace.
Treated metal was used for manufacturing ingots with a mass from 2.8 to 60 tons, casts with a mass up to 3.9 tons and also rolled stock. The ingots then were used for manufacturing smith forgings. With the use of wave treatment more than 100 industrial melts of volumes from 60 to 400 tons with total mass of about 8500 tons and more than 300 industrial and experimental melts of little volumes (50 – 280 kg) were made. For studying the properties of metals passed the wave treatment following samples of parts were chosen: mill rolls for cold rolling (forged, cast-forged) guiding rolls, mill rolls for hot rolling, bowls, punching cubes, hot-rolled list metal, cast parts. These parts were made of 09Г2С, 5ХНМ, 10ХН3МДЛ, 17Г1С, 35Л, 35ХГСЛ, 40ХЛ, 40ХМА, 45, 50ХН, 60XH, 75Х2СГФ, 90ХФ, 9Х2МФ steels and СЧ25 pig iron.For some steels research melts were counted in tens, for others – single melts for method’s evaluation purposes.
Researches were conducted at various stages of technological cycle: after pouring (probes and tidal samples), after thermal treatment, at the final stage of manufacturing. Micro and macro structures and mechanical properties were investigated, gas and ultra-sound analysis were conducted. Macrostructure was evaluated visually, microstructure was examined with optical microscopes, gas and ultrasound analysis and evaluation of mechanical properties were carried out with instruments of Central Plant Laboratory.
Melt treatment with the using of SWM technology. Wave emitter is on the front plane.
Influence of wave treatment on structure, phase content and mechanical properties of the steels
Specific signs of SWR treatment are the breakage of structure (decreasing of austenite grains size in average for 2-3 points) and the increase of its uniformity, including uniform distribution of the carbides, which usually leads to the growth of mechanical properties minimum in 1.5 times and to decrease of anisotropy. Results of the researches allow us to declare about the increase of plastic properties of the steels with retaining the strength properties. For the ferrite-perlite steels the changes in phase content in increase of perlite amount were observed. Chemical gradient of the phases was lowered, phase borders became more “fuzzy”. Dependence between breakage of microstructure and increase of mechanical properties was observed (except for 110Г13Л(Hatfield) steel)was observed, though there were cases when the increase of mechanical properties after SWM-treatment was observed without visible changes in metal’s structure.
Microstructure of110Г13Л(Hatfield Steel)samples (X100)
a) reference sample, austenite of 0 -1 units
b) after wave treatment; characteristic breakage of the grains (4-5 units) and more uniform of the carbides is observed/
35ХГСЛ steel (X100)
a) – reference sample
(ferrite grid, widmanshtet 2 – 3 units, perlite and ferrite grains)
b) – after wave treatment; ferrite and perlite grains
In all, the influence if SWM-treatment leads to the fact that after thermal treatment cast metal gets mechanical properties close to those of strained metal of the same type. The dissipation of mechanical properties from melting to melting also lessens.
Impact elasticity for 10ХН3МДЛ steel treated with SWM-generator increased by more than 50% both at +20° С and at -50° С with keeping the same strength characteristics. Along with thermal treatment correction it allowed significant rise of σт and σвр at given values of impact elasticity.
SWM field treatment allowed to rise mechanical properties of 35ХГСЛ steel up to those of 10ХН3МДЛ steel, whose price is 7 times higher that that of 35ХГСЛ. After SWM field treatment cast properties of the steels also change. Liquid flow ability of cast steels increases, what leads to reduction of cast rejects.
Fig. 5 Microstructure of the samples of treated (I) and not treated (II) 10ХН3МДЛ steel with different magnification:
a – x 517, b – x 1300, c – x 2200, d – x 4200
SWM treatment, sample 38
absence of cracks and cavities
Reference sample 34-2
SWM treatment allowed to decrease the percentage of losses (chips)
onder multiple reloads.
FIELDS OF THE USING
Using of wave treatment of the melt with the help of SWM generator allows to get: guaranteed improvement of metal’s structure which in turn allows to review the regimes of thermal treatment, significant increase of strength and plasticity characteristics of metal allowing the use of less alloyed and more cheap types of steels and pig iron, increase of wear resistance of such products as forming rolls at least of 20%. Implementation of this process will demand “through” technology: Liquid steel – SWM treatment – pouring – forging.
Above metallurgy, SWM technology can be used for:
- refining oil products and liquid industrial wastes.
Preliminary experiments were conducted:
- in agricultural field for increasing the crops of agricultural plants
- for water treatment for it’ purification and increasing it’s properties.
In the field of metallurgy, as in other fields deep researches with participance of specialists of Academic institutes are required.