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TRANSLATION AND LOCALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE CLASSROOM Theory and Practice

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  1. TRANSLATION AND LOCALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE CLASSROOMTheory and Practice 1~ Contextualizing translation technologies and projects 2 ~ Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 ~ Project management and quality control 4 ~ Reusing and recycling: alignment 5 ~ Translation memory 6 ~ Tagged content and translation 7 ~ Evaluation: processes and post-mortem Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  2. TRANSLATION AND LOCALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE CLASSROOMTheory and Practice Professional and academic background On questions of training and education Assessing and accommodating professional and student needs Complying with academic requirements and professional standards Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  3. Point of Discussion 1 Needs Analysis -- professional and academic You have been asked or wish to incorporate a technology component into your translator training / translation program. • What technologies are you going to include? • How will you distinguish between short-term market trends and long-term transformations (economy, professional life, etc.) with regard to the technologies? Will you attempt to accommodate both? • What are your concrete training objectives? • What are your overall educational / academic objectives? • Which perspective on technologies for which goal (academic research; professional use)? • What are the criteria you have established for your priorities? • What competencies and sets of skills? Can we teach students to reflect on the use of technologies (analyze and critique) at the same time we are teaching them to learn how to use them? Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  4. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects • PROFESSIONAL AND ACADEMIC OBSERVATIONS • My working premise: we *should* strive to have students reflect on the use and history of technologies while we are teaching them to learn how to use specific technologies. • Our experience (10-15 years) as users of translation technologies and technologies overall now allows us to approach them with a more critical and analytical frame of mind. • We can accommodate the imperative to reflect more substantively on technologies by considering the domains and histories that have contextualized their development: • Human-Computer [Human-Machine] Interaction – from MT to CAT, along the HT/HAMT/MAHT/MT continuum [bridging the HT-MT gap] • Localization – perhaps the first sustained “encounter” in a globalizing world between technologies and translation [many “localization procedures” have now become standard and routine components of translation projects in general] • Collaboration and teams characterize the translation environment today, even though we may not be aware of this virtual dimension when we work on our translation jobs individually. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  5. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Contextualize through basic questions…. • Why do we use translation and localization technologies? • What has transformed conventional translation projects? • Globalization • Technologies (computer, communications, information, Internet) • Opening up of MT research • Shared, distributed assets channeled through team and collaborative approaches • “Geoculturalization” strategies “…the act of allowing a local market’s geopolitics and culture to influence strategy, design and deployment of a product or service, [or] the refinement of the practice from localization into culturalization. […] For years we’ve heard endless commentary about globalization and the blurring of cultural boundaries, but I’d assert that in many ways the opposite is becoming true. The emphasis is now on the power of the local, as being supported by the global technology infrastructure.” (Tom Edwards, Englobe consultant, Multilingual , 2008) Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  6. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Contextualize through a prism of diverse and converging histories ….. • International trade and commerce • Human translation (HT) • Machine translation (MT) • Computer-assisted translation (CAT) • Communication, information, computer technologies • Localization • Internet • Globalization • Globalization, Internationalization, Localization, Translation (GILT) • Content management technologies Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  7. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects International Trade and Commerce sea, land, air … and Internet Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  8. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects International Trade and Commerce • Protocols, regulations, negotiations, agreements • Moving goods: import and export • Selling and buying goods and services • Property and intellectual property • Sales agreements and contracts • Investments and financing • Modes and methods of payment • Insurance • Competition and collaboration • Trade agreements • Technologized and virtual Localization -------- relationship to ICTs, Globalization and Internet Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  9. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Human translation (HT) Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  10. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Human translation (HT) • as process and product of linguistic-cultural transfer • as analyzed through linguistic tools in terms of • Sounds as units of representation  phonetics • Sound functions and patterning  phonology • Word structure  morphology (form; lexical category; derivation; inflection) • Sentence structure  syntax (words organized into phrases and sentences) • Meaning  semantics (information content; mental representation; reference) • Usage  pragmatics • Acquisition  language acquisition • Processing  psycholinguistics • Variation  dialects; slang; jargons; idiolects • Languages in contact  borrowings; pidgins; creoles; bilingualism; multilingualism • Change  historical linguistics • Culture and identity  anthropological linguistics and sociolinguistics • Relevancy of linguistics to to MT… Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  11. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Contextualize along the HT/HAMT/MAHT/MT continuum …. ….. with a focus on language Human language – “natural language”  linguistics (and sub-domains) Natural language: refers to a language that has evolved gradually as the major means of communication and expression of a community. It has native speakers, in contrast to computer languages and other artificial languages which have no native speakers. This type of language is normally used for human communication without any restriction of semantic scope and syntax. Machine language – “artificial language”  computational linguistics Artificial language: refers to a language invented for use in computer programming. Computational linguistics is the branch of computer science concerned with natural language processing; it is about the use of computers in the study of human language and the study of making computers understand information expressed in human languages. Natural language processing: a branch of computational linguistics which deals with the computational processing of textual materials in natural languages through human manipulation. Human Translation ----------------------------------  Machine Translation Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  12. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects HT/HAMT/MAHT/MT continuum Human translation: the process or act of producing a translation by a human being. To translate from one language to another requires a competent mastery of skills in language comprehension and reproduction in both the source and target languages. In human translation, translators use a variety of thought processes and skills to interpret the meaning of the source text and to communicate the meaning of that text in the target language. Human translators have proper usage of language resources, such as term, phrase, and grammar dictionaries, and are capable of creating a translation that will be clearly understood in the reader’s target language. Machine translation: refers to the use of machines (usually computers) to translate texts from one natural language to another. It has other designations such as “automatic translation”, when the process of translation is emphasized, “mechanical translation”, when the mode of production is highlighted, and “computer translation”, when the tool of production is brought to attention. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  13. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects HT/HAMT/MAHT/MT continuum What is human-aided machine translation (HAMT)? Refers to the human translator supplying limited information to “fill out” the machine translation. The required human assistance may take place before machine processing begins, during the translation process, or afterwards. What is machine-aided human translation (MAHT)? Refers to a type of human translation with limited assistance from the machine. It does not remove from the translator the burden of actually performing the translation. The machine is a tool to be used or controlled at the discretion of the translator. Same as “computer-assisted translation” (CAT). Also, machine-aided translation, which refers to the use of computer programmes by translators to help them during the translation process. This includes such aids as spell checkers, online access to term bank equivalents. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  14. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Machine Translation (MT) • Machine translation is an interdisciplinary enterprise that combines a number of fields of study such as lexicography, linguistics, computational linguistics, computer science and language engineering. It is based on the hypothesis that natural languages can be fully described, controlled and mathematically coded (Wilss 1999: 140). • MT architecture approaches: Direct translation (1st generation) Rule-based (2nd generation) Corpus-based (3rd generation) • Today’s translation demands include translation for many different purposes. For MT, at least four purposes have been identified: dissemination, assimilation, information exchange and access. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  15. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Computer-assisted translation (CAT) The history of computer-assisted translation is tied to the history of the translator’s workstation. - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - One definition of a translator’s workstation: A workstation is a single integrated system that is made up of a number of translation tools and resources such as a translation memory, an alignment tool, a tag filter, electronic dictionaries, terminology databases, a terminology management system and spell and grammar-checkers. There are two major translation tools in a workstation or workbench: translation memory systems and terminology management systems. (C.K. Quah) Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  16. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Computer-assisted translation (CAT) “The translator’s workstation” (Harold Somers) For example: In the late 1970s we find the first proposal for what is now called translation memory, in which previous translations are stored in the computer and retrieved as a function of their similarity to the current text being translated. As computational linguistic techniques were developed throughout the 1980s, Alan Melby was prominent in proposing the integration of various tools into a translator’s workstation at various levels: the first level would be basic word-processing, telecommunications and terminology management tools; the second level would include a degree of automatic dictionary look-up and access to translation memory; and the third would involve more sophisticated translation tools, up to and including fully automatic MT. Into the 1990s and the present day, commercial MT and CAT packages begin to appear on the market, incorporating many of these ideas. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  17. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects “The translator’s workstation” (Harold Somers) Software with some translation capability will be an integral part of the translator’s workstation. The most important feature of this is that it is under the user’s control. The first thing to note is that commercial MT systems are designed primarily with use by non-linguists in mind. The typical system presents itself as an extended word processing system, with additional menus and toolbars for the translation-related functions including translation memory. […]In its most simple mode of use, the user highlights a portion of text to be translated. The draft translation is then pasted in the appropriate place in the target text window, ready for post-editing. If the user can determine what text is to be translated, they will quickly learn to assess what types of text are likely to be translated well, and can develop a way of working with the system, translating more difficult sections immediately by hand, while allowing the system to translate the more straightforward parts. […] Many [CAT] systems offer a choice of interactive translation in which the system stops to ask the user to make choices. Full word processing facilities are available in the target text window to facilitate post-editing. With many systems, the same is true of the source text window, which simplifies the task of pre-editing, i.e. altering the source text so as to give the MT system a chance of doing a better draft translation (“post-editing the source text”). Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  18. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects “The translator’s workstation” (Harold Somers) […] [T]he translator’s workstation represents the most cost-effective facility for the professional translator, particularly in large organizations. It makes available to the translator at one terminal a range of integrated facilities: multilingual word processing, electronic transmission and receipt of documents, spelling and grammar checkers, style checkers or drafting aids, publication software, terminology management, text concordancing software, access to local or remote term banks, translation memory, and access to automatic translation software to give rough drafts. The combination of computer aids enables translators to have under their own control the production of high quality translations. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  19. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Computer-assisted translation (CAT) http://www.hutchinsweb.me.uk/MTJ-1998.pdf Origins of the Translator’s Workstation (John Hutchins) Proposals for the translator’s workstation can be traced back over more than 20 years. Their full integration and acceptance had to await technical developments of the 1990s, but their desirability for the effective utilization of machine aids and translation tools was recognized long ago. The title of workstation has been applied to a number of translation aids, but here we are concerned only with the type of workstation intended for direct use by professional translators knowing both source and target languages, and retaining full control over the production of their translations. Workstations and other computer-based translation tools are traditionally referred to as systems for “machine aided human translation” (MAHT), in order to distinguish them from MT systems with some kind of human assistance either before or after processing (pre- and post-editing), known often as “human aided machine translation” (HAMT). Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  20. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects http://www.hutchinsweb.me.uk/MTJ-1998.pdf Origins of the Translator’s Workstation (John Hutchins) The 1966 ALPAC report encouraged support for basic computational linguistics and the development of computer-based aids for translators. Computer-based terminological resources were received with increasing favor by translators from the late 1960s. Particularly in large governmental and industrial organizations, there was an increasingly pressing need for fast access to up-to-date glossaries and dictionaries in science, technology, economics and the social sciences in general. The difficulties were clear: rapidly changing terminology in many scientific and technical disciplines, the emergence of new concepts, new techniques and new products, the often insufficient standardization of terminology, and the multiplicity of information sources of variable quality and reliability. It was recognized from the outset that on-line dictionaries for translators could not be the kinds of dictionaries developed in MT systems. Translators do not need the kind of detailed information about grammatical functions, syntactic categories, semantic features, inflected forms, etc. which is to be found in MT lexica, and which is indeed essential for automatic analysis. Nor do translators need to consult dictionaries for items of general vocabulary-which are equally essential components of an MT system dealing with full sentences. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  21. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects http://www.hutchinsweb.me.uk/MTJ-1998.pdf Origins of the Translator’s Workstation (John Hutchins) In the 1970s, terminology data banks were being built to provide information on demand about individual words or phrases as the basis for the production of glossaries for specific texts, and for the production of published up-to-date specialized dictionaries for general use. Many of the databanks were multilingual, nearly all provided direct online access and most included definitions. In the case of other termbanks, the emphasis was on the provision of terms in actual context. […] The databases were intended not just for translators but also for lexicographers and other documentation workers, with facilities for compiling dictionaries and term glossaries, for producing text-related glossaries for machine-aided translation, for direct online access to multilingual terminology databanks, and for accessing already translated texts by means of indexes. The archive of translations, recorded on magnetic tapes, could also be the source of re-usable translation segments. However, the whole complex of interlinked linguistic databases was constrained by the computer technology then available. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  22. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects http://www.hutchinsweb.me.uk/MTJ-1998.pdf Origins of the Translator’s Workstation (John Hutchins) The use of a translation archive was elaborated by Peter Arthern (1979) in a proposal for what has now, since the late 1980s, become known as a translation memory. The suggestion was made in a discussion of the potential use of computer-based terminology systems in the European Commission. After stressing the importance of developing multilingual text processing tools and of providing access to terminological databanks, Arthern went on to comment that many EC texts were highly repetitive, frequently quoting whole passages from existing EC documents and that translators were wasting much time re-translating texts which had already been translated. He proposed the storage of all source and translated texts, the ability to quickly retrieve any parts of any texts, and their immediate insertion into new documents as required. He referred to his concept as “translation by text-retrieval”, and envisioned an early model translator’s workstation which could still accommodate a full MT system. The concept would not come to fruition for another decade or more. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  23. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects http://www.hutchinsweb.me.uk/MTJ-1998.pdf Origins of the Translator’s Workstation (John Hutchins) One of the most decisive moments in the development of the future translator’s workstation is now considered to be the (initially limited) circulation of a memorandum in 1980 by Martin Kay. This combined a critique of the current approach to MT, namely the aim to produce systems which could essentially replace human translators or at best relegate them to post-editing and dictionary updating roles, and an argument for the development of translation tools which would actually be used by translators. Since this was before the development of microprocessors and personal computers, the context was a network of terminals linked to a mainframe computer. Kay’s basic idea was that existing text-processing tools could be augmented incrementally with translation facilities. The basic need was a good multilingual text editor and a terminal with a split screen; to this would be added a facility to automatically look up any word or phrase in a dictionary and the ability to refer to previous decisions by the translator to ensure consistency in translation; and finally to provide automatic translation of text segments, which the translator could opt to let the machine do without intervention and then post-edit the result, or which could be done interactively, i.e. the computer could ask the translator to resolve ambiguities. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  24. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects http://www.hutchinsweb.me.uk/MTJ-1998.pdf Origins of the Translator’s Workstation (John Hutchins) Alan Melby, in 1981, put forward the use of a bilingual concordance as a valuable tool for translators. It enabled translators to identify text segments with potential translation equivalents in relevant contexts. As an example, he showed an English text segmented into phrases and its corresponding French version, segmented likewise. The computer program would then create a concordance based on selected words or word pairs displaying words in context. The concordance could be used not only as an aid to study and analyze translations, but also for quickly determining whether or not a given term was translated consistently in technical texts, to assist translators in lexical selection, and in the development of an MT system for some narrow sublanguage. Melby seems to be the first to suggest concordance application as a translation tool. In his experiment, texts were input manually and correspondences between texts (later called “alignments”) were also made by human judgement. Only the concordancing program was automated, but Melby was clearly looking forward to the availability of electronically produced texts and of automatic alignment. At the same time, he was making specific proposals for a translator’s workstation—quite independently of Kay’s proposals in 1980. Like Kay, Melby wanted the translator to be in control, to make his/her own decisions about when to translate fully and when to post-edit, and he wanted to assist translation from scratch by providing integrated computer aids. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  25. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects http://www.hutchinsweb.me.uk/MTJ-1998.pdf Origins of the Translator’s Workstation (John Hutchins) The aim was the “smooth integration of human and machine translations” (Melby 1982), bringing together various ideas for supporting translators in an environment offering three levels of assistance. At the first level, certain translation aids can be used without the source text having to be in machine-readable form. The translator could start by just typing in the translation. This first level would be a text processor with integrated terminology aids and access to a bilingual terminology data bank, both in the form of a personal file of terms and in facilities for accessing remote termbanks (through telecommunications networks). In addition, there might be access at this level to a database of original and translated texts. At the second level, the source text would be in machine-readable form. It would add a concordancing facility to find all occurrences of an unusual word or phrase in the text being translated, facilities to look up terms automatically in a local term file, display possible translations, and means of automatically inserting selected terms into the text. The third level would integrate the translator work station with a full-blown MT system. Melby suggested that the ideal system would be one which evaluates the quality of its own output (from “probable human quality” to “deficient”), which the translator could choose to incorporate unchanged, to revise or to ignore. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  26. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects http://www.hutchinsweb.me.uk/MTJ-1998.pdf Origins of the Translator’s Workstation (John Hutchins) Both Melby and Kay stressed the importance of allowing translators to use aids in ways they personally found most efficient. The difference between them was that whereas Melby proposed discrete levels of machine assistance, Kay proposed incremental augmentation of translator’s computer- based facilities. Translators could increase their use of computer aids as and when they felt confident and satisfied with the results. And for both of them, full automation would play a part only if an MT system made for greater and cost-effective productivity. These ideas of Kay and Melby were being made when text-processing systems still consisted essentially of a range of terminals connected to a mainframe computer and to separate printers for producing publishable final documents. It was natural to envisage networked systems rather than individual workstations. For ex., Melby assumed that the future scenario was a “distributed system in which each translator has a microcomputer tied into a loose network to share resources such as large dictionaries.” (1982) The technology situation definitively changed with the appearance of the first personal computers in the mid 1980s, providing access to word processing and printing facilities within the range of individual professional translators. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  27. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects As needs change, technologies evolve, and environments are modified, the “tools” and “workspace” of the translator likewise are transformed. The history of the translator’s workstation reflects these changes. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  28. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Globalization, Internationalization, Localization, Translation (GILT) Globalization (g11n): Refers to a broad range of processes necessary to prepare and launch products and company activities internationally. Addresses the business issues associated with launching a product globally, such as integrating localization throughout a company after proper internationalization and product design. Internationalization (i18n): The process of generalizing a product so that it can handle multiple languages and cultural conventions without the need for redesign. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  29. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Globalization, Internationalization, Localization, Translation (GILT) Localization (l10n): The process of adapting a product or software to a specific international language or culture so that it seems natural to that particular region. True localization considers language, culture, customs and the characteristics of the target locale. It frequently involves changes to the software’s writing system and may change keyboard use and fonts as well as date, time and monetary formats. Translation: The process of converting all of the text or words from the source language to the target language. An understanding of the context or meaning of the source language must be established in order to convey the same message in the target language. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  30. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Globalization, Internationalization, Localization, Translation (GILT) Source: Pierre Cadieux, Technology Editor, LISA Newsletter & Bert Esselink, Chief Editor, Language International (http://www.lisa.org/globalizationinsider/2002/03/gilt_globalizat.html) The "GILT slide" puts it all together. * Globalization is a two-step process: internationalization and localization. * There are usually several localization efforts happening in parallel. * Translation is often the largest part of localization. Translation refers to the specifically linguistic operations, performed by human or machine, that actually replaces the expressions in one natural language into those of another. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  31. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Globalization, Internationalization, Localization, Translation (GILT) Source: Pierre Cadieux, Technology Editor, LISA Newsletter & Bert Esselink, Chief Editor, Language International (http://www.lisa.org/globalizationinsider/2002/03/gilt_globalizat.html) We can see more and more practices and technologies that were previously very specific to the "localization world" entering into the more traditional translation industry. For example, translation memory tools are now commonly used by translators who translate material which is not software related. The concepts of translation and localization may progressively merge. Localization may no longer be a separate discipline since sooner or later all translators will have to know at least the basics of localization – from translation to localization, and back again. * * * Localization basics are best understood through the notion/model of PROJECT. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  32. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Localisation Research Centre: http://www.localisation.ie/ The Localisation Industry Standards Association: www.lisa.org Localization World: http://www.localizationworld.com/ Inttranews: http://inttranews.inttra.net/cgi-bin/home.cgi?langues=eng&phase=1 Multilingual magazine: www.multilingual.com Common Sense Advisory: http://www.commonsenseadvisory.com/ Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  33. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects Translator’s Tool Box (Jost Zetzsche): http://www.internationalwriters.com/toolbox/ John Hutchins Web site: http://www.hutchinsweb.me.uk/ Translation Automation User Society: http://www.translationautomation.com/joomla/ Byte Level Research: http://www.bytelevel.com/ Jeff Allen’s Post-editing site: http://www.geocities.com/mtpostediting/ Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  34. 1 - Contextualizing translation technologies and projects • PEDAGOGICAL EXERCISES • Linguistic analysis of text, from perspectives of HT linguistics, MT computational linguistics, and CAT. Goal: to understand how text is generated by humans and by machines, for insight on how it is also translated by humans and machines. Benefit: how to revise HT and MT text. • Review the HT process. Go through the same exercise but indicate how automation and CAT integrate into this process. How does the HT:CAT relationship differ from the MT:CAT one? • Explain the above in terms of the translator’s workstation. • Compare the office work environment and translator’s office work environment in terms of the software MS Office and SDL Trados. • Others? Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  35. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control • PROFESSIONAL AND ACADEMIC OBSERVATIONS • Project management is a process of decision-making. • Resources managed: human; technical; material; financial. • There are general principles of project management; nonetheless, every project is unique. • Communication is vital to the well-being of the life-cycle and to the success of the project. • Standards and best practices are important, as is certification of processes, services and products. • The Project Management Institute recognizes five basic groups of processes: initiating; planning; executing; controlling and monitoring; and closing. • The PMI recognizes nine knowledge areas: management of project integration, scope, time, cost, quality, human resources, communications, risk, and procurement. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  36. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control • “A Step by Step Guide to Translation Project Management” • (Sanaa Benmessaoud 2002) at www.translationdirectory.com/articles/article1543.php • Project Management Institute (PMI) • www.pmi.org • “Translation and Project Management” • (C.R. Perez 2002) at • http://accurapid.com/journal/22project.htm • “Translation Project Management” • Andrey Vasyankin at • http://www.translationdirectory.com/article65.htm Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  37. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control Project Management: “The Project Management Institute (PMI) (2000: 6) defines project management as ‘the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.’” Project Manager: “A project manager (PM) will be required to plan the budget, track the workflow to ensure the project is completed on time, and control all the phases of the project to make sure its outcome will meet the client’s requirements.” Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  38. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control • Translation Project’s Life-cycle (adapted from Perez 2002): commissioning, planning, groundwork, translation and wind-up. • Steps and phases: • COMMISSIONING • Reception of RFQ [Request For Quotation] • Pre-sales evaluation • Commissioning Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  39. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control • PLANNING • Project evaluation: identify client’s needs and objectives, as well as short-term and long-term goals • Work sub-division: break-down structure and work packages • Schedule plan of dependences and sequences: i.e. which work package or activity depends on the completion or sequence of another • File management • Resource and budget plan • Communication plan • Quality Assurance plan: to evaluate overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards [PMI 2000] Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  40. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control • GROUNDWORK • Project glossary preparation • Text alignment • Text preparation • TRANSLATION • WIND-UP • How complex have projects become? • http://www.project-open.com/solution/translation/ Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  41. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control A brief word on file management…… needed for tracking jobs and for storing data (project; client; translator) Question: how would you create and manage your files? Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  42. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control • PEDAGOGICAL EXERCISES • Think through, visualize and depict the flow of content and work within your organization or company. [This exercise is crucial, for example, when conceptualizing databases and putting them into place.] • If you had to propose and explain your organizational/company file management structure to consultants or to new project managers, what would this structure be like? • Simulate and carry out a hypothetical project with the class. • Connect with an NGO or other organization to carry out a real project. • Concordia U projects include: Ad-Com Loc company; YMCA Tours Ecuador; Committee for Social Justice; Romani Yag Web site; Tactical Tech [for Africa]. • Find, read and discuss PM position profiles. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  43. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  44. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control • Lay out the territory to cover the project life-cycle from beginning to end. • Formulate relevant questions and preliminary answers. • Assess and integrate human, material and technological resources. Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  45. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  46. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control • What is content …? • “Any digitized information—text, document, image, video, structured record, script, application code, or metadata—that conveys meaning or represents value in interactions or transactions. It ranges from documents to HTML to graphics to telematics and beyond.” (DePalma, Common Sense Advisory, 2008) • “A system of words, images, audio and video that is integrated with information architecture and visual design to communicate…” (Harris and McCormack 2000) • The content carries communication! Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  47. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control • Define project content… • In-flight magazine • Safety instructions (laminated card, video) • TV screens (publicity, info, movies, music, maps) • Company financial application • Web site (including online reservation system) • Customer service Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  48. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control • Define project content format … • In-flight magazine • color desktop-published 100-page magazine • bilingual text entries (English + language representing flight route) • Safety instructions (laminated card, video) • color desktop-published laminated card based on images and simplified explanations in bilingual version (English + language representing flight route) • video film with audio providing detailed explanations (subtitled) Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  49. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control • Define project content format … • TV screens (publicity, info, movies, music, maps) • video film clips or pub spots from sponsors (subtitled or dubbed) • real-time flight information in moving bilingual text [dynamic] • films (subtitled or dubbed into English or other language) • music (channels should include local music) • maps (territory covered by flight route and plane icon representing real-time movement [dynamic] Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008

  50. 2 - Management of technologies, workflow and content 3 - Project management and quality control • Define project content format … • Company financial software application • general ledgers and sub-ledgers to create income statements, balance sheets, and to track assets, liabilities, income and expenses, including modules for billing, job costing, points of sale • ability to transfer information and funds between branches; to import data from other modules, systems, and spreadsheets; and to generate reports • ability to measure adherence to industry or government accounting standards in currencies of all branches Debbie Folaron (Concordia University) CTTT Braga, Portugal 2008