Unit Two/Ch. 16 AP European History Ms. Tully - UHS The Scientific Revolution: Astronomy
Focus Question • What did Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton contribute to a new vision of the universe, and how did it differ from the Ptolemaic conception of the universe?
Background to the Scientific Revolution • Revival of classical works by Renaissance humanists • Renaissance artists – anatomy, mathematics • Exploration technical advancements • Printing press • Rediscovery of ancient mathematics • Renaissance magic desire to understand & dominate nature • Geocentric conception concentric spheres w/ fixed earth at center
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) • Spent 24 years developing heliocentric conception On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres • Challenged Ptolemaic system sun at center • New uncertainty of human role • Condemned by Protestants & Catholics
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) & Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) • Brahe Danish noblemanw/ a castle on island • 20 years of detailed observations • Brahe’s assistant Johannes Kepler • Kepler gained possession of Brahe’s data • Three Laws of Planetary Motion • Eliminated idea of circular motion & crystal spheres
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) • First European to use telescope in astronomy • Contradicted theory that everything is made like the earth • The Starry Messenger (1610), Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican • Condemned by Roman Inquisition put under house arrest for 8 years • Developed law of inertia
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) • Created synthesis of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo • Englishmen, studied at Cambridge • Invented calculus, studied composition of light, law of universal gravitation • Principia (1686) • President of Royal Society in 1727 • Universality of law could mathematically explain all motion in the universe • Dominant world view until 20th C