Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación Física y del Deporte Departamento de Deportes Degree in Sports ScienceCourse: TennisLesson-3: Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities Professor: Ph.D. José Antonio Aparicio Asenjo Lesson adapted from National Mini-tennis Instructor course RFET and FTM.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities TABLE OF CONTENTS • Tennis history • Equipment • Racket • Strings • Ball • Footwear • Clothing • Accessories • Facilities • The court • Types of courts
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities Tennis History
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities • The origin of ball games, among which we find tennis, dates back to Egyptian, Greek and Roman cultures. The word “racket” may come from the Arab word “rahat” which means palm of the hand. • In XI century, monks already played in their cloisters of the monastery a kind of game similar to tennis, paddle or ball game. Soon after, these ball games were played in palaces.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities • Years later, even Shakespeare introduced tennis in some of his plays. For example, in his play “Henry V” we find references to the sport: Young Henry V transmitted the French his wish to marry their princess, becoming this way king of both France and Great Britain. The French, in response, sent him a box full of tennis balls and suggested him to spend his time playing this sport instead of dealing with state matters.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities Real Tennis or Jeu de Paume • Henry VIII of England did order the construction of several courts. Hampton Court, which was built after his death in 1625, exists nowadays. • This type of indoor tennis, played within walls, was known in England as Real Tennis, while in France it was called Jeu de Paume (palm game).
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities • In XVI century, the Jeu de Paume was all the rage. We find tennis teachers, trainees, associates and craftsmen who manufactured rackets and balls, and even there were all the required infrastructure for the development of betting, activity that was in vogue mainly in France. • At the end of the century (1789) the French Revolution occurred. Bets were forbidden and both Jeu de Paume and Real Tennis languished.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities Way of counting, Love, Deuce • In those years the sexagesimal system was dominant in Europe. 60 was the equivalent of our 100. Therefore when dividing 60 between the four points required to win a game, we obtain the figures we use nowadays (15, 30, 45 and game) (For convenience, the quinque disappeared from the quadraginta quinque). • Other words we use nowadays, and probably come from those years, are: • Love: It comes from the French “l’euf” (which means “egg”) referring to the zero number. British simply adapted the phonetics. • Deuce: When players were tied at 40, the expression was “à deux” (by two). Again the expression is phonetically adapted in English.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities Lawn Tennis • In 1839, they get the rubber to be vulcanized, which was a great milestone for tennis balls. Soon after, lawnmowers were considerably improved. These two innovations made playing outdoor lawn tennis possible. • Although played in earlier times, in 1874 Mayor Wingfield registered a tennis game called Sphairistiké (it is said he probably patented a game that was being played somewhere else). He established net height, court measures, rackets, etc. All these contained in a box with an interesting presentation.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities • In 1875 a code of rules was compiled, influenced by the jeu the paume (such as counting fifteen by fifteen). • This first code didn’t last much and in 1877 after many complaints and change proposals, a committee made up of several players grapple the task of changing the rules. A tournament was scheduled in July at the “All England Croquet & Law Tennis Club”. • This was how Wimbledon tournament was born: 22 players came up, and M. Spencer Gore was the winner.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities • The development of these first tournaments proved the significance of the service, requiring taking some measures such as changing the net height and distance from the service lines. These changes were implemented in 1878, in the next tournament, establishing a width for doubles game. • In this beginning a new stroke appeared, raising controversy: the volley. • According to authors from that period: Volleys stop the game, and disallow good strokes from the opponent. The use of volley shows a lack of gallantry.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities • Later on, the volley was accepted, creating a new game style. Two parallel schools and ways of playing were created: Mayor Lawford’s which continued with baseline game, and Reshaw brothers’ which introduced volley strokes even in doubles. • Both Lawford and one of the Reshaw brothers will play against each other at Wimbledon in 1882. Reshaw won back then during 7 years in a row.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities • Between 1880 and 1888 the basic rules of our current tennis appeared, including some modifications such as changing ends of the court after each odd game and the advantage scoring. • The Lawn Tennis Association (LTA) was created in 1880 and it would rule and control the regulation, taking care of the development of tennis both in England and abroad. • In 1899, Dwight F. Davis, a young Harvard student who was a tennis fan, had a great idea and suggested to LTA organizing a match between the USA national team and the UK national team, offering a silver trophy as a price. • That’s how the Davis Cup was born.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities • By 1912, about 1,150 clubs had joined the LTA. • The very same year, most of the European tennis associations, met in Paris to create the International Tennis Federation. • This Federation met every year in Paris by the end of February to rule and/or vary the regulation ruling the tournaments. • That’s how modern tennis was born.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities • Tennis was included in the program of the first modern Olympic Games that took place in Athens (1896). • In Paris (1900) female competition was introduced. • In Stockholm (1912), the mixed doubles became part of the games. British players dominated the podium in those years, wining up to 10 Olympic gold medals until 1920, followed by the American, French and South African players. • Tennis continued being an Olympic discipline until Paris games (1924), but the increasing professionalization of the sport itself (started by American Charles C. Pyle in 1926), caused the withdrawal of tennis from the Olympic calendar and all international amateur tournaments. • During the years of the two World Wars, the main competitions were suspended, except the US Championship.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities • In 1938, American Don Budge, became the first player winning the Grand Slam, which means, winning the four most prestigious tournaments of the same season. This success has just been achieved by the also American Maureen Connolly (1953), Australians Rod Laver (1962 and 1969) and Margaret Mit. Court (1970); and German Steffi Graf (1988). • In 1963 the Federation Cup was created. A female team tournament equivalent to the male Davis Cup.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities • During great part of the century, professional players were not allowed to play in the main tennis events. However, in 1968, International Tennis Federation, organization founded in 1913, created the open tournaments (known as opens) in which both professional and amateur players are allowed compete. • Also in that same year, 1968, tennis rejoined the Olympic program as an exhibition sport, but it disappeared again until Los Angeles Olympic Games (1984). • In Seoul (1988) it was readmitted for good as an Olympic competitive sport.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities • Traditionally, Anglo-Saxon countries have dominated the tennis tournaments, particularly the USA and Australia, countries that have had the best players among game’s greatest. • This situation began to change during the 70s and the 80s, with the bursting in of new power countries such as Sweden, Czechoslovakia, Germany, France, Yugoslavia, Russia, Argentina and Spain. These countries have provided great champions in the late years and have won many team titles.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities IN SPAIN: • Among the Spanish tennis players, we point out the following: Lilí Álvarez in the 20’s, Manuel Santana and Andrés Gimeno in the 60’s. Manuel Orantes was the standard-bearer in the 70’s. But the great momentum came in the last decade of the XX century with the Sanchez Vicario siblings: Emilio, Javier and Arantxa (Roland Garros), Sergi Bruguera (two Roland Garros), Carlos Costa and Conchita Martínez (Wimbledon). • More recently we have Alex Corretja (Masters 98), Carlos Moyá (Roland Garros 98), Albert Costa (Roland Garros 2002), Juan Carlos Ferrero (Roland Garros 2003) and the sensation that exploded in 2005, the Majorcan Rafael Nadal (Roldan Garros 2005)(1 Australian Open, 6 Roland Garros, 2 Wimbledon, 1 US Open, 1 Gold Medal in 2008 Olympic Games ), achieving number 2 in the world ranking, these are the leaders of a generation of 30 players that hang around the top 100. Moyá, Ferrero and Nadal have been number 1. Virginia Ruano Pascual also deserves to be mentioned here: she achieved number one in doubles. They have all been top ten and standard-bearers of a magnificent generation of players known as the “Spanish Armada”. • Spain has obtained 5 Davis Cups: in Barcelona 2000, wining Australia 3 to 1. In Seville 2004, winning USA 3 to 2. In Mar del Plata 2008 beating Argentina 3 to 1. In Barcelona 2009 winning Czech Republic 5 to 0. And finally Seville 2011 beating again Argentina 3 to 1.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities Tennis Equipment
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities RACKET Parts of the Racket: • Head • Frame • Throat • Shaft • Handle • Strings
RACKET SIZES Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities
FRAME LENGHT Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities Frame Length Power Handling- Control +1.5 cm = + 5 % power - 5 % handling-control
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities RACKET LENGHT By increasing racket length we improve: • Power • Service penetration angle • Reach We lose: • Handling and control
STRINGS SIZE (SURFACE) Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities Strings surface in cm²- inches² Beginning in the 80’s oversize rackets appeared, in order to provide more powerful shots
RACKET WEIGHT Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities RACKET COMPOSITION Materials used in racket manufacturing: • Carbon • Fiberglass • Graphite • Titanium • Kevlar • Aluminium • Tungsten • Zylon
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities STRINGS Racket strings favors comfort and hit. Animal gut or synthetic? • Animal gut is used since the end of the XIX century to string rackets. They are more expensive and last less, but as they don’t have a central frame, they provide an excellent feeling. • Synthetic strings: • Multifilament strings, composed of many threads braided. They provide power and comfort. • Monofilament strings, composed of one thread, stronger and stiffer, which will loose tension more easily. MEASURES: From 1.25 to 1.50 mm
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities STRING TENSION • Strings receive some tension when we put the strings in a tennis racket. • The average tension ranges from 24 to 26 Kg. • Each player chooses his own string tension depending on string surface and nature, and also on his own game style. • It all depends on the desired ball power and control: • Higher tension: More control, less power • Lower tension: Less control, more power
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities BALLS • Manufacture: • Natural rubber from Malaysia, blended with chemical products, and ball shaped. • Rubber balls are modeled into 2 semi-spheres, assembled with natural glue. • Features: Pressure-Durability-Weight-Bounce • Ball Types: With pressure, without pressure
BALLS Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities • Felt covering the rubber core is mainly composed by New Zealand’s wool. • Felt is cut in two parts. • Next step is to assemble them to the rubber core.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities BALL BOUNCING Trajectories: • Mini-Tennis: softer balls with a more vertical bounce and slower speed. • No compression: harder balls, faster and constant bouncing speed. • With compression: softer balls, longer bounce, and better playability, while keeping the pressure.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities FOOTWEAR Introduction: • Models, weight and height of tennis footwear can range considerably. • Features: When choosing our footwear, it is important to consider these aspects: – Comfort (footwear must adapt to player’s feet) – Padded (vibration absorption) – Stability – Resistance (durability) – Traction
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities PARTS • Toe • External Sole • Midsole • Sole • Width • Insole • Instep • Laces • Counter • Top line • Collar • Heel • Tongue
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities MATERIALS • Leather • Rubber • Fabric • Polyurethane (PU) • Etil-vinil-acetate (EVA)
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities FOOTWEAR & PLAYING SURFACES In the same way we have one type of shoe for each kind of foot, there are also different models depending on the court we are going to play.
CLOTHING Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities
ACCESORIES Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities TENNIS COURTS Surfaces: Slower surfaces: - Clay Faster surfaces: - Hard courts (porous / non-porous) - Grass courts - Wood courts - Artificial courts: artificial grass/turf, carpet courts.
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities CLAY COURTS Advantages: • In these courts, game is slower, so it requires less effort intensity. Due to their softness, there is less risk of lesions. Drawbacks: • They require continuous maintenance • They are very delicate to humidity and wind • After raining, it is necessary to wait until the court is dry to play again. The court needs to be covered to protect it.
POROUS CONCRETE COURTS (QUICK) Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities
NON-POROUS CONCRETE (GREENSET) Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities POROUS Advantages: • Very absorbent • It requires virtually no maintenance • They favor offensive game • Very popular among players Drawbacks: • Hard • They cause knee and ankle lesions • As time goes by, they tend to crack • Repairing them is very expensive
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities IMPERMEABLE Advantages: • Game slightly fast • Very regular bounce • They have no joints and they do not cause slips • Very resistant to damages Drawbacks: • Hard • They cause lesions easily • They must get painted periodically
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities GRASS COURTS Advantages: • Fast and low bounce • They favor fast game and serve-and-volley game • They don’t usually cause lesions Drawbacks: • Very expensive maintenance • Playing is only guaranteed during some months in Summer
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities ARTIFICIAL CARPET Advantages: • Nice appearance • Can be removed and installed in other places • Soft (avoid lesions) • They are usually installed at indoor facilities Drawbacks: • High price • Installation must be done by specialized staff
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities WOOD COURT (PARQUET) Advantages: • They favor attack serve game (serve-and-volley) Drawbacks: • High price • Less resistance to attrition
Lesson-3Tennis History, Equipment and Sport Facilities ARTIFICIAL GRASS Advantages: • Low and fast bounce • Little maintenance required • Good water absorption • Quite padded • Less ankle and knee lesions Drawbacks: • They don’t follow the official professional tournaments regulations • Quite expensive